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sex, season, social relations and the psychical constitution of individuals. Meumann contributes an article on the methods of determining different types of concepts; Neumann on the doctrine of the economy and technique of learning, and the volume contains the usual large number of reviews.

School Hygiene and the Laws of Health. A text-book for teachers and students in training. By CHARLES PORTER. Longmans, Green & Co., New York, 1906. pp. 313.

These lectures are based upon a course of lectures given to teachers of the Sheffield Training College, New York, and are modelled to suit the syllabus of the Sanitary Institute examination. The writer first treats of the skeleton, joint, muscular, circulatory, lymphatic, respiratory; digestive, excretory and nervous systems, and then of eye, ear and infectious diseases. The second and shorter part discusses school sites, buildings, ventilation, warming, lighting, sanitation, cleaning and school furniture. The first part is very elementary anatomy and physiology and the second part, singularly enough, has nothing to say about personal hygiene, but is limited to the hygienic aspects of buildings. The title of the book is, therefore, too broad, and we confess to a grievous disappointment.

The Teaching of Mathematics in the Elementary and the Secondary Schools. By J. W. A. YOUNG. Longmans, Green & Co., New York, 1907. PP. 351.

The author of this book addresses prospective and experienced teachers of mathematics. The writer has attempted to address both, but realizes that his work may therefore have defects for each. He first treats the pedagogy of mathematics, then its purpose and value, and then follow chapters on methods and modes of teaching heuristic and individual, the Perry movement, the laboratory method, a long chapter on miscellaneous points of method and mode. He then discusses the preparation of teachers, mathematical clubs, material, apparatus, curricula, definitions and axioms, actual teaching, arithmetic, geometry, algebra. It is a valuable and rather needed work and sheds a great deal of light in an obscure and perplexed field.

King's Illustrated Portfolio of Our Country. By W. C. KING. William C, King Co., Springfield, Mass. 1907. pp. 50.

These fifty pages rammed and crammed with facts, diagrams in all the colors of the rainbow, about every sort of historic, scientific, economic, industrial aspects that present all kinds of output, leaders of parties, inventions and what not are, we believe, of real and great pedagogic value. They open large bodies of knowledge to the ready apprehension of the eye, which can take in at a glance things properly presented it by graphic methods, which could not be apperceived in ten times the work otherwise and some of them are masterpieces of condensed presentation. Just how all this data can be used in the schools is an interesting problem, but as a leading table of handy reference such a work is a real accession to the repertory of the teacher.

Elementary English Composition. Designed for use in the grammar grades and the lower high school grades. By TULEY F. HUNTINGTON. The Macmillan Co., New York, 1907. pp. 357.

The author has, above all things else, tried "to come close to the hearts of Tom and Alice." The text is a letter addressed to these boys and girls. The theme is objective and the writer has had the adolescent stage particularly in view. He seeks also to convince boys

that composition work is really worth doing. It is designed for upper grammar and lower high school grades. The chief subjects treated are oral composition; the written theme; paragraphs, sentences and words; punctuation; letter writing; school works; narration and description from novels; explanation; and argument. The book contains fifteen photographic reproductions illustrating its subject matter. Second International Congress of School Hygiene, London, August

5th-10th, 1907. Preliminary Programme. London, 1906. pp. 71. Great preparations are being made in England for a meeting at which a great many different associations are to be represented. It is to last a week, is organized with a very efficient general society, with large committees scattered over the Empire and has no less than eleven different sections. Organizations, too, in every country in Europe are enlisted, and attempts are being made to bring together not only all members of the permanent international committee, nearly two score in number, but the leading experts in all related fields.

Observations on the Florid Song or Sentiments of the Ancient and Modern Singers, written in Italian by PIER. FRANCESCO Tose. Translated into English by Mr. Galliard. Wilcox, London, 1895. pp. 184.

This is a reprint from an original printed at Bologna in the year 1743. The chapters are on cadences, airs, the recitative, the shake, the appoggiatura, passages of grace, observations for singers, air, teachers of sopranos, etc. It is a very unique and quaint exposition of the ancient florid mode of operatic singing. The author has an intense self-consciousness as to the importance of his art. The chief reflection in reading this book is the immense difference between the style once in vogue and that practiced by great singers now. Traces of this are still seen upon the Italian stage and these fashions have especially survived in the singing of operas written in the last century and given in Italian. Otherwise these fashions are as much passé as are the old styles of florid oratory.

Department of the Interior. Bureau of Education Bulletin, No. 3,

1906. State School Systems: legislation and judicial decisions relating to public education October 1, 1904-October 1, 1906. By EDWARD C. ELLIOTT. Washington Printing Office, 1906. pp. 156. This is one of the first publications of the Bureau of Education under its new chief, and comprises a survey of school laws for two years, ending October 1, 1906. These are grouped under the following heads: administration, control and supervision, state finances and support, local finances and support, buildings, sites, teachers in elementary and secondary schools, employment, professional training, etc., school population and attendance, discipline, health, text-books and supplies, subject matter of instruction, typical schools, secondary legislation, professional, higher and private institutions, libraries, and the education of defectives and delinquents with a supplement of recent decisions of state supreme courts.

A Sentiment in Verse for every day in the year. Compiled by Walter L. Sheldon. Ethical Year Book, No. II. Weston, Philadelphia, 1906. pp. 116.

This collection of poems might be considered as a contribution to ethical culture or to moral education. There is little, if anything, in the selections that could offend religionists of any sect. It is a curious recrudescence of the very inveterate ancient custom of having Bible texts printed in almanac sequence, which used to be entitled "Daily

Food" or "Spiritual Guidance," and perhaps may have some psychological connection with the old idea of reading the story of a saint for each day in the year, or having each named in the church calendar as an anniversary of a saint. It may also be regarded as in some sense a survival of the old morning or evening prayers.

The Universal Kinship, by J. HOWARD MOORE.
Co., Chicago, 1906. pp. 329.

Charles H. Kerr &

This is a very interesting, suggestive and original bit of pedagogic work. The author is instructor in zoölogy in a manual training high school and has undertaken to bring together the recent results of science, and show a physical, psychological and ethical kinship between man and animals. In the 28 short chapters, he treats such topics as man as a vertebrate, mammal, and primate, homology, genealogy of animals, factors of organic evolution, the conflict between science and tradition, psychological evolution, the development of the human and non-human minds compared, human nature as a product of the jungle, the ethics of the savage or ancient and the modern man, provincialism, altruism and the ethical implications of evolution. Principles of Secondary Education, a text-book.

By CHARLES DE GARMO. The Macmillan Co., New York, 1907. pp. 299. In the introduction of this book, Dr. de Garmo treats the social and the individual basis of education and then discusses how secondary studies were selected in the past and how they should be now with a hierarchy of aims, rich and abundant material, should have reference to the claims of all classes of society and the time and strength of the student, etc. He tells us how sciences and humanities and economics should be classified and how they are distinguished as a true beauty and goodness, discusses separately each of the exact, the biological and the earth sciences, then takes up language, fine art, history and economics. The fifth chapter discusses the organization of studies into curricula, the selection of topics, the election by students, the correlation of high school studies with a scheme for the same and lays down certain rules for the construction of such courses, viz., juxtaposition versus section, unity, acquisition, of efficiency, the order of languages, etc.

Congress of Arts and Science.

Universal Exposition, St. Louis, 1904. Edited by Howard J. Rogers, Volume VII. Houghton, Mifflin & Co., Cambridge, 1906. pp. 872.

This volume is devoted to economics, politics, social regulation, jurisprudence and social science and contains nearly seventy papers treating of very fundamental topics, often with bibliographies, many of which are written by those of international fame, a dozen or so of whom are foreigners.

Congress of Arts and Sciences. Universal Exposition, St. Louis, 1904.

8th volume. Edited by Howard J. Rogers. Houghton, Mifflin & Co., Boston, 1907. pp. 493.

This is the most interesting in this series for teachers because it contains twelve rather extended educational papers and a number of abstracts and bibliographies. The religious section comprises the other half of the book by as many writers, whom we do not think as representative as are the pedagogues.

A German Scientific Reader, with notes and vocabulary. By WILLIAM H. WAIT. Macmillan Co., New York, 1907. PP. 521.

The author prints here selections from the work of German specialists in several different fields of science in a way to afford a connected

chapter on each topic. They are chemisty, physics, geology, mineralogy, astronomy and anatomy. The last 80 pages of the book contain a vocabulary. The idea is an excellent one, but the book is open to the grave criticism of defective size and clearness of type.

L'Organization de cours de traitement pour enfants troublé de la parole, par GEORGES ROUMA. Engelman, Leipzig, 1906. pp. 170.

The writer has made a long study of speech defects and here attempts to present with considerable detail for the benefit of the public, a catalogue résumé of his methods of treatment with the justification of each step. He appends a brief interesting survey of the schools and methods in other lands, especially in Europe.

Die Entwicklung des deutschen Städtewesens, von Hugo Preuss. Teubner, Leipzig, 1906. pp. 379.

The first chapter is on the development of the German cities. Then follow chapters upon their culmination and decline, the relation of cities to and under an absolute ruler, the regeneration of the city under autonomy, the development of their constitutions to the present time.

Life in Ancient Athens; the social and public life of a classical Athenian from day to day. By T. G. TUCker. Macmillan Co., New

York, 1906. PP. 323.

This is an interesting book, illustrated by 85 cuts depicting remains of ancient Athenian culture. It has chapters on public buildings, streets, citizens, outlanders, slaves, women, house and furniture, the social day of a typical citizen before, during and after dinner, woman's life and fashion, boyhood and training, army and navy, religion, festivals, council and assembly, trial, burial and art.

A Short History of Ancient Times for colleges and high schools. By PHILIP VAN NESS MYERS. Ginn & Co., Boston, 1906. pp. 388. The author here revises the last half of his general history with such changes as were necessary to make the book an independent one. The survey begins with the barbarian kingdoms and ends with present day expansion in England, France, Germany, Russia and other


Town and City. (Gulick Hygiene Series.)

BY FRANCES Gulick JewETT. Ginn & Company, Boston, 1906. pp. 272.

This third book in the Gulick Hygiene Series treats of the growth of cities, overcrowding, reforms, alcohol, clean streets, garbage, ashes, rubbish, parks, playgrounds, baths, fires, water, supply and waste, sewerage, preventable disease, tobacco, food inspection, epidemics, vaccination, tuberculosis, mosquitoes, hospitals, dispensaries, ambulance.

The Child Mind, a study in elementary ethology. By HENRIETTA HOME. Mathews, London, 1906. pp. 48.

This is a rather slight, very brief, sketchy, literary, philosophic, poetic, maternal series of four chapters quite impossible to describe, if indeed it were seriously worth while to attempt to do so.

Von Jo

Der Trompeter von Säkkingen. Ein Sang vom Oberrhein.

SEPH VICTOR, von SCHEFFEL. With introduction, notes, vocabulary and repetitional exercises by Herbart C. Sanborn. Ginn & Co., Boston, 1906. pp. 590.

Iphigenie auf Tauris. Edited with introduction, repetitional exercises, notes, and vocabulary by Philip S. Allen. Ginn & Co., Boston, 1906. pp. 218.

Novelas Cortes, by DON PEDRO A. DE ALARÇON. Edited with notes and vocabulary by W. F. Giese. Ginn & Co., Boston, 1906. pp. 234.

Journal of the Proceedings of the 52nd Annual Meeting of the Illinois State Teachers' Association and Sections held at Springfield, Illinois, December 26-28, 1905. Illinois State Journal Company, 1906. pp. 194.

Report of the Inter-Departmental Committee on Physical Deterioration. Volume I, report and appendix. Presented to both Houses of Parliament by Command of His Majesty. Darling & Son, London, 1904. Reprinted 1905. pp. 137.

The President's Report of the University of Chicago, 1905-6, with publications of members of the University, July, 1905-July, 1906. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1907. pp. 177.

State of New York. State Commission in Lunacy. Seventeenth Annual Report, October 1, 1904, to September 30, 1905. Transmitted to the Legislature January 31, 1906. Brandow Printing Co., Albany, 1906. pp. 1146.

A Short History of Mediæval and Modern Times, for colleges and high schools. By PHILIP VAN NESS MYERS. Ginn & Co., Boston, 1906. pp. 438.


The first International Congress for Child Study was held at the University of Berlin, Oct. 1-4, 1906, and was attended by nearly seven hundred people from Germany and other countries. This gathering was composed of University professors, teachers from the secondary and peoples schools, physicians, clergymen, lawyers and parents of the cultured class. To facilitate the work, the congress was divided into three parallel sections, the anthropological-psychological, the psychological-pedagogical and the philanthropic-social. Some of the addresses, which were of general interest, were given before a joint assembly of the three sections. The reports of those following are derived from the "Bayerische Lehrerzeitung" and "Blätter für die Schulpraxis. Dr. Adolf Baginsky, Professor of Children's Diseases at the University of Berlin, spoke on the Impressionability of Children under the Influence of Environment. His chief points were as follows: Every physician who specializes in children's diseases is impressed by the fact that children, even although their life conditions, environment and influences are similar, present quite different characteristics of illness, and many cases show that a mere change of surroundings may be a powerful remedial factor. This he considers due not merely to its effect upon the pathological conditions present in any particular case, but rather to the influence upon the entire personality of the child. The effect of the change of surroundings is incomparably greater in children than in adults, because in the child, ideas and associations are far more unstable than in the adult and therefore more easily displaced by new impressions. In children also the influence of impulses is very great, whether they exist from birth or are a result of custom and training. Especially powerful are the impulses of imitation and the functional impulses under the influence of pleasure and pain sensations. Children are also peculiarly liable to confuse their own ideas with reality. This is a source of phantasy, illusion, autosuggestion, and also of pathological fear and children's lies. The

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