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her victories no less renowned than war," has not yet become the conviction of any considerable number of these youths and maidens. With many of them "battles" and "great events" would seem to be synonymous terms; indeed, one boy asked me of "great events" if the great event had to be a battle. There is, moreover, scarcely any difference to be detected between the ninety-three answers of the girls and the ninety-three answers of the boys on this point. And this is all the more remarkable when we remember how different this investigation proves the reactions of boys and girls to be in general. Does the explanation lie in the masculinization of the girls in a subject handled by a man entirely from a masculine point of view; and does their knowledge of it consequently arise rather from passive imbibition than from active interest and appreciation? The wisdom of co-education, with all that this usually implies in practice, is by no means established yet. In discussing the subject of great events with the pupils, before assigning it for composition, one can spend an hour very profitably in questioning and cross-questioning them as to their reasons for deeming a certain event great. This inquiry gives rise to a very interesting and stimulating discussion, calculated to leave the pupils better prepared to appreciate the many great events they have ignored, as well as the true significance of many they have mentioned.
It is interesting to note that while the Life of some Great Man comes much earlier than some Great Event in History in the girls' list, the Great Event is placed somewhat before the Life in the boys' list. Boys evidently regard the fact, the accomplishment; girls are more interested in the person. Boys are lovers of deeds; girls hero-worshippers. An examination of the particular men admired reinforces the present argument. In the case of the boys eighty-six per cent. of these are men of action, and only fourteen per cent. leaders of thought; whereas with the girls only fifty-nine per cent. are leaders of action, and forty-one per cent. are leaders of thought; the leaders of thought being in both cases mainly poets. Again, of the men of action a rather larger proportion of warriors is chosen by the boys and of statesmen by the girls; and while the boys mention nine inventors, the girls mention but one. The girls select women in only six cases, although in two of the classes, containing fifty-six girls, I expressly added the words "or woman" to the subject, making it read, Life of some Great Man or Woman. Some might think that there is little significance in this fact, as the number of famous women is small and even these not in the front rank of genius and achievement; and that the girls, therefore, show their honesty and good sense in recognizing this fact. Many of the men they choose, however, are far from being of the first rank. Dickens, Marconi, Wm. Lyon
Mackenzie, Lord Strathcona, and other men of comparatively little note have their votaries among the girls; while George Eliot, Mrs. Browning, Cornelia and Deborah are not mentioned. It is possible that co-education is to some extent responsible for the little interest shown by girls in the great of their own sex. In our returns the women admired by the girls are Queens Victoria, Elizabeth and Boadicea, Joan of Arc, Jenny Lind and Florence Nightingale; Victoria receiving two votes and the rest one. One of the boys also admires Elizabeth. It is not a little disquieting to find that the two men most admired by the youth of both sexes should be Nelson and Napoleon, each of whom receives thirty-three votes, Nelson leading slightly with the boys and Napoleon with the girls. Here the instinct of the boys is truer than that of the girls. If we must have a warrior for a hero, better a thousand times the unselfish patriot than the vain-glorious despot. The girls, however, give as many votes to Tennyson as to Nelson, and almost as many to Scott, while Wolfe stands almost as high in the boys' estimation as Napoleon. The latter have hardly taken seriously Wolfe's noble tribute to the poet Gray before the battle that made him famous. The girls' preference for Napoleon over Nelson possibly indicates a less narrowly racial and patriotic feeling than boys possess. The nine boys who mention inventors are students in the science department, and no one mentions any scientist. They are evidently learning to value the practical application of principles rather than the principles themselves, to admire an Edison rather than a Faraday. There is but a scattering of votes (one or two apiece) for religious leaders, for St. Patrick, Wesley, Luther and Moody; there are three votes for Dante, one for Milton, and one for the musical composer, Wagner. And while, as I have said, there are thirty-three votes for Nelson and thirty-three for Napoleon, there are but three for Livingstone and one for Gordon.
Of Bible characters Joseph is the favorite both with the boys and with the girls, but particularly with the latter. And this is true of all ages up to and including seventeen, except that at fourteen the girls much prefer David. After Joseph comes David, and then Moses. The predominance of these three may be partly, but only partly, accounted for by their exclusive mention in the question as examples of Bible characters. After these by a long interval come Daniel and Paul together, Daniel being especially liked by the boys. Others receive scattering votes. Christ is mentioned by five of the girls but by none of the boys. It is probable that the great majority of the pupils did not regard Christ as included in the question. Sixty of the boys and twenty of the girls failed to name any Bible character.
The position of the subject Bible Characters in both lists,
and particularly in the boys', deserves more than a passing allusion. In spite of the strong natural interest that young people have in biography and in the far-away, the great characters of the Bible, Moses, Joseph, David, the prophets, and the apostles, have much less interest for the girls than the lives of other men, and for the boys have scarcely any interest at all. The subject comes fifth on the girls' list and tenth on the boys'; and to both, Bible characters are far less interesting than the brilliant despot Napoleon. One of the two subjects placed by the boys below Bible characters is a subject of which the majority of them know very little and have been taught scarcely anything; whereas they have presumably been taught the Bible from their infancy at home and in the Sunday School. The science students placed even these two subjects ahead of "Bible characters," placing this last of all. The curves of interest for Bible characters show that this interest steadily wanes in the girls after the age of thirteen, with but a slight recovery in later adolescence. In the boys the decline is deeided but less constant, and the recovery at later adolescence relatively more pronounced; though it does not reach even the low point to which this interest falls in the case of their sisters.
These facts are a startling commentary upon our methods of training youth. Is it not evident that parents in general either do not or cannot teach the Bible, and that the Sunday School lessons are altogether deficient in that they fail to give the youth a love for the Bible? Clearly our methods will have to be revised and a more psychological system substituted for the very defective one now in vogue. In a word the science of genetic psychology will have to be applied to the matter before we shall have much improvement in this deplorable condition of religious education. The Bible is a unique record of ethical and religious growth and it should be taught as such to growing youth. And we do not read the signs of the times if we fail to perceive that such training is essential to the stability and permanence of the State. It is inconceivable that a generation trained to appreciate the beauty and sublimity of Hosea's life and thought should wander so far from the true idea of sexual relationship, and in particular of the marriage tie, upon whose sanctity is founded the family and the State. It is inconceivable that a generation trained to admire the consecrated statesmanship of an Isaiah would tolerate the leadership of political and commercial bosses and grafters. It is equally inconceivable that a generation that had imbibed in youth the great hearted catholicity of the book of Jonah (which to most young people as well as old is but a Mark Twain joke) should have presented so sorry a spectacle to the world as the West has exhibited these past twelve months in their selfish and brutal treatment of a magnanimous and sensitive race.
BIBLIOGRAPHY OF CHILD STUDY.
For the Year 1906.
By Louis N. WILSON, Librarian, Clark University.
1. Adams, Myron E. The causes of juvenile crime. Outlook, 1906. Vol. 83, pp. 796-801.
2. Adkins, Frank J. The school as a social centre. Jour. of Ed., Lond., 1906. N. S., Vol. 28, pp. 387-389.
3. Adler, Felix The punishment of children. Jour. of Ed., 1906. Vol. 63, pp. 402, 454, 481, 540, 596.
4. Allen, Anne Elizabeth Kindergarten and primary games. Elem. School Teacher, 1906. Vol. 7, pp. 13-15.
5. Allen, Edward Ellis Physical education of the blind. Amer. Phys. Ed. Rev., June, 1906. Vol. 11, pp. 65-74.
6. Allinson, A. C. E. The curriculum for girls. Nation, 1906. Vol. 83, pp. 198-199.
7. Altenberg, Oskar Etwas von moralischer Schwachsinnigkeit unter Schülern öffentlicher Schulen. Die Gesundh. der Schule, 1905. Vol. 3, pp. 58-72.
8. Altschul, Theodor Die Mitwirkung der Lehrer bei Gewinnung einer brauchbaren Morbiditätsstatistik in Schulen. Die Gesundh. der Schule, 1905. Vol. 3, pp. 134-138.
9. Ament, Wilhelm Fortschritte der Kinderseelenkunde, 18951903. 2d rev. ed. W. Engelmann, Leipzig, 1906. pp. 76.
Die Seele des Kindes. Kosmos, Stuttgart, 1906. pp. 96. II. American, Sadie Vacation schools. Education, 1906. Vol.
26, pp. 509-518; 614-623.
12. Arnold, Felix The psychology of interest. Psy. Rev., 1906. Vol. 13, pp. 221-238; 291-315.
13. Atkinson, J. H. The preparatory school and the boy. Education, 1906. Vol. 27, pp. 227-230.
14. Badley, J. H. Co-education after fifteen; its value and its difficulties. Child Life, 1906. Vol. 7, pp. 12-19.
15. Baginsky, Adolph Ueber Waldsschulen und Walderholungsstätten. Zeits. für päd. Psy. Path. u. Hygiene, 1906. Vol. 8, pp. 161-177.
16. Bair, Joseph Hershey The development of thinking power in school children. Univ. of Colo. Invest. Depts. of Psy. and Ed., Apr., 1906. Vol. 3, pp. 45-51.
Motor activity and mental selection. Univ. of Colo. Invest. Depts. of Psy. and Ed., 1905. Vol. 3, No. 1, pp. 28-32. 19. Bjorkman, Frances M. Children's court in American city life. Rev. of Revs., 1906. Vol. 33, pp. 305-311.
Human infancy, its causes, significance, and the limits of its prolongation. Univ. of Colo. Studies, Nov., 1905. Vol.
3, PP. 25-29.
Baldwin, W. A. The school garden. Education, 1906. Vol. 26, pp. 447-461.
22. Barrett, H. Management of children. E. P. Dutton Co., N. Y., 1906.
23. Bathurst, K. The physique of girls. 19th Cent., 1906. Vol. 59, pp. 825-833.
Baldrian, Karl Zur Pflege der Gesundheit taubstummer
24. Baur, Alfred Die Ernährung des Säuglings. Die Gesundh. der Schule, 1905. Vol. 3, pp. 73-75.
On the necessity of special physical care of deaf mute children, and need of special institutions for their care and training.
Grosse Muneli, kleine Rekruten. Die Gesundh. der Schule, 1905. Vol. 3, pp. 191-195.
During the last few years Switzerland has become noted for its prize cattle, which have steadily increased in size and weight. This has been chiefly accomplished by feeding them milk, a steer which is being fattened for competition consuming as much as fifteen quarts daily. But while the cattle have increased in size and weight, the children have deteriorated until in the last year only 30% of the young men were available for military recruits. The chief cause of rejection was undersize and weight. This the anthor thinks is directly correlated with the feeding of milk to the cattle, and thus withdrawing it from the children, who are fed with Alpine rose tea as a substitute.
Die Hygiene des Ethosim Schulalter. Die Gesundh. der Schule, 1906. Vol. 4, pp. 30-42.
A contribution to the hygiene of ethics. Discusses inherited ethical weakness, importance of nourishment from the beginning of life, questions of sex, etc.
Die Sophienhöhe bei Jena. Die Gesundh. der Schule, 1905. Vol. 3, pp. 171-177.
Description of institute for feeble minded children at Jena, and brief outline of its methods.
28. Beale, Dorothea Presidential address delivered at the British Child-Study Association Conference, May, 1906. Paidologist, 1906. Vol. 8, pp. 66-70.
29. Beale, Dorothea and others Work and play in girls' schools. Longmans, Green & Co., London, 1901. pp. 433.