Billeder på siden

Quare 4. Whether a Defire to promote the Honour and Intereft of the Citizens of LoNDON, abftractedly from all other Confiderations, was the Caufe of thefe Gentlemen's appearing against a Bill brought in by an unanimous Refolution of themf.lves and all prefent? And,

Quare 5. What Inconvenience to the CITY, could have followed from paffing the aforefaid

Bill into a Law?

allows pernicious Tendency


It must be confeffed, we fhould be a very happy People were we all of one Religion, free from Slavifh Principles of every Kind; nor does any Thing more deferve the Attention of the Legiflature, than an Attempt to reduce the Nation to this happy State. But there is only one Way of procuring this great Bleffing, and that is, by introducing the Principles of Natural Religion in explaining Scripture: Common Sense of June 30, For thofe Principles, being fix'd, as well as fuited to the Understandings of all To be his Impartiality, admits an EpiSorts of People, would prevent the perfle fign'd R. S. in Favour of the enicious, or otherwife erroneous Interprethodists, by way of Aufwer to one he inferted May 19, from a Correspondent who B ated Men. The Scripture would then be tations of interested, ignorant, or infatu fign'd P.Q. (which two Letters we forgot to put at the End of it, p. 257.) themfeives have termed it) liable to be no longer a Nofe of Wax (as Divines R. S. Enthafalin, but that, as to Mar- mallible Ray Svery Body would be a molded into Shape. this ters purely fpeculative, the Civil Magi. Judge of the true Senfe of it; fo that ftrate cannot fupprefs it by Force without no one could be deceived himself, or be invading Religious Liberty. Tho' I readily C able to deceive others. And there is the grant (favs he) the Doctrines of Free Grace, more Reafon, as well as Neceffity, for Holy Influences, Reg eneration, Election, having recourfe to Natural Religion on and Reprobation to be enthufiaftic Doc- this Occafion, in regard it is allowed to trines, very injurious to true Religion, as be the Bafis of Christianity, which there. they tend to give People odious Impref- fore fhould be conformable to it. fions of the Deity, and deftroy the ideas Buc poffibly P. 2. would not be for of his Moral Attributes, yet I cannot a- carrying the Reformation fo far: His gree that Mr Whitefield, or the Metho-D Zeal for fuppreffing Enthufiafm and Sladifts, ought, on that Account, to be fup- vifh Principles feems to be confined preted by the Legiflature; becaufe fuch wholly to Sectaries, and not to extend to a Procceding is not only a Violation of an Etablish'd Church, however corrupt Religious Liberty, but would, in effect, it might be. This, indeed, is the Drift be compelling them to believe as the of his whole Letter; and to colour his Church believes, which is Religious Sla- Partiality it is alledg'd, that any great Severy, the very Thing P. 2. is for guard- E paration from the Eftablish'd Church, tho ing fo much againit, for a very fubitantial to a new one which is more pure and perReafon, becaufe flavish Principles in Reli- felt, may be an Occafion of endangering gion fill carry along with them the Princi- the publick Peace. ples of Civil Slavery. See p. 257 C

But if this Reafon be of any Weight, no Sect ought to be fupprefs'd, nor any Reformation ever attempted, for Fear of endangering the Publick Peace. If thefe

Were Mr Whitefield's Notions attended with Slavish Confequences, they ought to be fupprefs'd; for tho' a Violence would be done thereby to Religious Libe berty, yet that Liberty is never to be aljowed of when it clafhes with, or runs counter to, Civil Liberty.

But as P. Q. has produced nothing to prove his Charge of Slavith Principles a gainit thofe Doctrines, I will appeal to himfelf, whether the Methodifis ought G not rather to be encourag'd than fupprefs'd (especially if their Preaching has fich Influence upon the People) fince they exclaim

and other Ecclefialtical Impolitions, which

feem to be the true Grounds of all the Clamours raifed against them. On this Account, perhaps, their Progrefs ought more to be willed than feared, and it might be of Advantage to the People if they were all Methodilts.

not Slavish Principles in Religion, which will carry along with them the Principles of Civil Slavery, I know not what are: For by the fame Rule that People mult fubmit to a corrupt Church, they muft fubmit to a corrupt Government.

R. S.

From the Craftsman, July 14. No. 679.
Of the late Alt against GAMING.

EING glad of every Opportunity to

B celebrate the Wisdom and Juftice of

the Legiflature, I will make a few Remarks upon one Act of publick Utility, which was pafs'd the laft Seffion of Parliament; and to oblige the minifterial Writers for once, I will treat it with all poffible Serioufnefs. I mean the At


for the more effectual preventing of EXCESSIVE and DECEITFUL GAMING; which, notwithstanding all former Laws, hath continued to increase and multiply into different Shapes, to great Interruption of Trade, the Difcouragement of Indaftry, and the utter Ruin of many Families, who are ignorant of thefe Frauds.

on into Westminfier-Hall, without the Party's giving good Security, to f Value of 100l. for trying the fame in fix Months, and for paying the Profecutor his treble Cofts, in Cafe fuch Conviction fhould be affirm'd.

There are but two Objections, in my A prefent View of it, that can be easily made to this falutary Law.


It is enacted by this Law, that every Perfon, who fets up any private Lottery, Sale, or Raffle, to be determined by Lot or Drawing, whether out of a Box or Wheel, or by Cards or Dice, or by any Machine, or Device whatsoever, fhall, upon Conviction before any Justice of Peace, upon the Oath of one creditable Witness, forfeit the Sum of 200l. to be levy'd by Diftrefs and Sale of the Offender's Goods; and if they are infufficient to answer the Penalty, and the Offender does not imme diately pay the Moncy, or give Security for the fame, any Juftice, or Mayor, may commit him to the County Goal for fix C Months.

The fame Penalty is inflicted upon every Perfon, who fhall make, print, or advertise Proposals or Schemes for advarcing Small Sums of Mone,amounting in the Whole to large Sums, to be divided amongst them by Chances in the Prizes of any publick Lotteries etablished by Act of Parliament, or shall be any Ways concern'd in delivering out Tickets to Perfons advancing fuch Sums, intitling them to a Share of the Money fo advanc'd, according to fuch Proposals or Schemes.

The Games of the ACE OF HEARTS, PHARAOH, BASSET, and HAZARD, are E fpecifically declar'd to be Games, or Lotteries, by Cards or Dice, within the Intent and Meaning of this At; the Penalty for playing at fuch illegal Games sol. to be fued for and recover'd as aforefaid.

It is likewife declar'd, that all fuch Games, Lotteries, and Sales, fhall be ab. folutely void, and that all Houfes, Lands, Plate, Jewels, and other Goods, expofed to Sale in this Manner, fhall be forfeited to any Perfon or Perfons, who fhall fue for the fame.

1. That the Penalty of 107. on Juftices or Mayors, for neglecting or refuting to do their Duty, may feem too fmall; for that is certainly as high an Offence, as the carrying on, or being concerned in any of the Games hereby declared to be unlawjak.

2. That nothing in this Act, or in any former Acts againit Gaming, fhall prevent any Perfons from playing at thele Games, within any royal Palace, where his Majesty, his Heirs, or Succeflors, fhall then reide Whether the Verge of

the Court is included in this Exemption, is not exprefsly declared, but if the Palace fhould be understood to include the Verge, or any Rooms adjoining to the Court, we hope the proper Officers will not protect them; because the fame Frauds may be practis'd there, and fet a worie Example, than in any other Place Belides, as

it is a Maxim of Law, that none of the royal Prerogatives can be taken away by any Act of Parliament, unless particularly mentioned, there can be no Occafion for any particular Confirmation of them.

It were to be withed that the Exigen ces of the Government might never require a publick Lottery; it being computed that every 100,000 l. collected this Way, puts a Stop to the Circulation of at lealt 300,000 l. in Trade, belides other Inconveniencies. But whenever it is found neceffary to erect a State Lettery by Law, it would certainly be of great Advantage to the Publick, to prevent low People from engaging in it. The Trade of Horfing, commonly fo called, is, indeed, forbidden by the prefent Lottery- Act; but Chances, and Shares of Tickets for the whole Drawing, (which is a Sort of Horfing) are allow'd by it Thus every

common Servant, Apprentice, and other mean People, may be able, and tempted G to become Adventurers in it. This could not certainly be from any Apprehenfions of the Lottery's not fillig, when we confider to what a Pitch the Spirit of Gaming is arriv'd, and that the Prohibition of fome private Branches of it will neceflarily promote any publick one, authoriz'd by Law. Beides, particular Care hath been taken to encourage the Sale of Tickets, from the firit Day of Drawing to the laft, as a worthy Mem

There is, indeed, an Appeal from the Justices to the next Quarter Seffions for any Perfon, who thinks himself aggrieved by their Determination; but it is under feveral Restrictions; for the Appellant is not only to pay treble Coffs, if the Judg. ment be affirm'd; but it is provided that no fuch Conviction made, or Judgment given, fhall be fet afide at the Quarter Sef-H fions, for want of Form; nor any Writ of Certiorari, or other Procefs be iffued to remove the Record of any fuch Convicti

ber of this City very justly obferv'd, by making the last drawn Ticket a Prize of five Thousand Pounds, which will certainly keep the Spirit of Ganning alive. -- I mult here take the Liberty to obferve that, in my humble Opinion, the Claufe in this At, for allowing of Chances and Shares, ieems to clath a little with the Clatie before-mentioned. in the Act againit exceffive and deceitful Gaming, by which a Penaity of 200 is inflicted en every Perfon who fhall fplit the Tickets of any publick Lottery into Cruces and Shares. But that muit ve left to better Judges of the Law than myfeif.

However, the Suppretion of private Lotteries, Sales, and Raffles, it it fhould take Effect will certainly be of great Benefit to the fair Trader, as well as to the deluded Adventurers, fore of these Lotteries having never been drawn, alter great Sums had been raised upon them; many fraudulently drawn; and the Prices in moit of them valued at an exorbitant Rate.



But I am most pleafed with the Prohibition of the other Games mentioned in the Act, particularly HAZARD, which hath ruin'd Thousands of Families, as D well amongst the Nobility and Gentry, as others of an inferior Rank. Who would trust a Merchant, a Banker, a Tradefinan, or an Attorney, if it was known that they were common Gamefters?

[ocr errors]

fome Tavern or Coffee-Houfe; nor is th any great Wonder if we reflect, that those who quarrel for the State, are Men as well as thofe that quarrel for a Punk, nay, that the most contemptible of Mankind are fuch who, at certain Times, are prefer'd to the Management of the Affairs of a State, and the World has often feen the Man who prefides in the Cabinet, and directs the Helm, more ignorant, more cowardly, and compofed of bafer Qualities, than the ill-bred Clown who makes a Riot in the Streets.

The Gazetteer of the 20th (in an Address to the Readers of Common Sense) exclaims at the Foregoing, thus: This, Gentlemen, is the Language of the bitter ft Foe to Common Senfe, at a Time when a Rupture feems almost unavoidable, and a War, for which he has borul'd the whole Winter, begins to approach in our Profpect; thefe are the Words of a pretended Friend to BriCtain, in this Light he reprefents a Difpute wherein the whole People are interested in the most affecting Manner. Mr Common Senfe, with his Colleague, have used their utmoft Skill to convince you of the Expediency of a War with Spain, Captain Jenkins has been made to país in review once a Week, with as many Stories to introduce him, as ever preceded the Defcription of Rawbead and Bloody-Bones: Whatever favoured Peace was condemned as tending to dishonour and impoverif Land, while Public Virtue feem'd to fhrink into nothing more than thundering out Revenge against Spain, and all Regard for the Whole People was confined to the fingle Article of Reftitution to our Merchants, and a Return of the Injuries we had received. And you can not but remember, that when the late Convention was made publick, Pamphlets, News-Pa pers and Speeches innumerable were employed in endeavouring to prove that aContinuance of Peace, upon any Terms at all, was abfolutely inconfiftent with the Honour of the Nation, the Interest of the Merchants, and the prefent and future Profperity of our Manufactories. What then can be faid of a Writer, who, now a Profpect of F Reconciliation with Spain by pacific Measures vanishes, and the fame Wisdom that ftrove, with fo much Earneftness, to preferve Peace, begins to defpair of Succefs without the Aid of a hoftile Influence, is fo far from being moved by

Is it not generally fuppofed that many of our late Bankruptcies and Insolvencies are owing to this curfed Evil, which na. E Eurally introduces Extravagance, Luxury, and Neglect of Bafiness?

It may likewite be wifh'd that an exprefs Claufe had been inferted in this Act, for the Recovery of all Eftates, Lands, or Sums of Money, however fecur'd by Notes, Bonds, or Mortgages, which could be fairly prov'd to have been won by fraudulent Gaming; tho' the Law is pretty plain upon that Head already, and may be farther enforc'd by another At of Parliament, if it fhould be found neceffary.


en strft, July 14, N° 128.

Sometimes form to myself a particular G Pleafure in comparing great Things with fmall, end, in this Humour, I confider thofe Actions which affect Kingdoms, in order to obferve the Similitude they bear to thofe little Movements which affect private Men, and I think it plain, that Mifunderstandings which embroil two States, and make a mighty Noife in the World, have fometimes been managed with the fame Folly and Indifcretion that attend those trifling Affronts which fet wo filly Fellows together by Ears in

Defire of appearing in earnett for the future, or the Senfe of Shame at a Conduct fo truly shame. ful, as to treat the two Nations in a Manner

that I blush to repeat, nor would ftoop to mea

tion, did it not afford a Proof of his real Intertions, and of unequal'd Scurrility, with which he treats alike the most felemn Concerns, and the most diftinguish'd Characters in Europe. I am perfuaded that a fhort Reflection will convince you, Gentlemen, that no Claim to Serance of the People can be regarded, no Pretence to a Love H for England credited, nor any Declaration of a Defire to ferve Mankind believed from a Pen fo inclined to Mifebief, fo bent upon Deceit, and fo devoted to Confufion, as the Man who under the Name of Common Senfe can leave Common Decescy unregarded.

If a wrong-headed Fellow runs himself into an unneceffary Quarrel, perhaps he at firft puts on the Bully;-if his Adverfary anfwers with Spirit, he fuddenly finks into a foft Tone, and fubmiffive Stile; next he cringes, and then folicits the good Offices of a Friend (that is to fay, a Mediator, to make it up for him) and now he fubmits to any Indignity, to be Friends.

As ridiculous as this may appear, and as ridiculous as it really is, it is a true Picture, in Miniature, of what has happen'd in a higher Scene; and if those who commit the great Folly, and make a Nation contemptible, were not furrounded with Power, and Dependants, and Flatterers who keep the Voice of the People from their Ears, they would know, that they are as little refpected as thofe whofe Follies affect Nobody but themselves.

Civil Lift and the ordinary current Service,

may be computed at about 2,900,000/ of which the Civil Lift is fuppofed to be about 700,000l.

So profound an Antiquary can't be ignorant, that fall Circumstances of Coin, Value of Bullion, Intereft of Money, A Trade, Value of Land, Houfes, &c.confidered,) 460,000l. about the Year 1600, is more than equal to 2,900,000 i. or even to 3 oco,000 l. in our Days.


There is a quarrelling Scene in one of Ben Johnson's Comedies, that is worked C up with a great Deal of Humour, and puts a Coward in fo ridiculous a Light, that I fancy it will be no difagreeable Entertainment to cur Readers.

After giving us the whole Scene, he makes the following Reflections:

Here a Quarrel is begun, and artfully. fomented betwixt two filly Fellows, by fome who propofed to make their own Advantage by putting them together by the Ears; which has often been the Cafe betwixt Nations.-One of them fubmits to the Mediation of the very Perfons who are playing upon him :- -This has also

happened in great Affairs. He is led by the Nofe, blindfold, by his very Media tors-Juft fo it has happened to a Nation. He is kick'd by his Mediator :-So has a Nation been. He lofes his Ears and his Fore-teeth :-A Kingdom may fometimes be faid to have loft its Ears and its Teeth. He beats his Head against the Handle of his own Sword: Here, indeed, the Similitude does not feem to run upon all fours, unless the keeping up a standing Army during a long Peace, that never was employ'd against an Enemy, may, by a proper Figure, be called, bruiting its Head against its own Sword.

Daily Gazetteer. Numb. 1260. Animadverfions on the Craftsman of June 16. figned Hampden. (See p. 317.)

THAT this Author fays of the Re




At the Beginning of the laft Century the general Rental of the Kingdom for Land, Houfes, Mines, &c was not fup. pofed to exceed 6,000,000l. per Ann. which, at ten Years Purchase, was worth but 60,000,000l. but fuppofing it at the higheft, which was 12 Years Purchase, it will amount but to 72,000,00o i. — In 1689, the faid Rental was computed to be 14,000,000l. and worth 18 Years Purchafe, amounting to 252,000,000l. By Computations of a very late Date, the prefent Rental of England is fuppofed to exceed 20,000,000 l. yearly; which being valued at 22 Years Purchase only, amounts to 440,000,000 l. Hence it ap pears that 460,000l. annually, is a heavier Burthen upon a Rental of 60, or even 72,000,000l. than 3 000,cool. is upon one of 440,000,000l. But it the Difproportion between our prefent Commerce and that of K. James I's Reign be confider', the Comparison will run much stronger against the Nominal Mr Hampden; ince the Advantages accruing annually from Trade, which bears a Proportion of the prefent Taxes, are not included in the aforefaid Compute.

Why Mr Hampden makes a Stride from K. James I. to K. Charles II. faying, He knows not what the Revenue was during the Reign of K. Charles I. is best known to himself, tho' it be pretty odd that one who had been at the Pains of going up fɔ high as Henry V. to feek out a Revenue but of 56,000l. a Year, fhould overlook one juft in his Way of about 900,000 1. Nay, fo extremely fond was he to quicken his Pace to the prefent Days, that he overlooks all the Time of the Ufurpation, G when the People were forced to pay an nually 1,65 1,702 1. by a Monthly Aflefs. ment, over and above the ordinary Revenues of the Crown. But as the very Loyal Mr Hampden could not with any De cency mention y Revenue of K. Charles I. without obferving the far greater Hardfhips impofed upon his Country during the Shadow of a beloved Commonwealth. he chofe rather to appear Ignorant, than fay any thing to prejudice his Readers against his favourite Syftem of Government.

W venues of Henry V. Q. Elizabeth, and K. James I. is very foreign to his SubH ject: For fuppofing, as he does, the Revenue of that Prince to have been about 460,000 l. a Year, it will appear to exceed the present Revenue for defraying the


make any Provifion for their Potterity, out of the Abundance of what they receive!"-Let him reconcile thefe Contradictions who can.

He roundly tells us, That the prefent annual Expence amounts to more than what for fome Years Supply d all the Expences of the Civil Government and the War, during K. William's Reign. Without doubt But what follows is ftill as extraordithis Gentleman muft himself be the most nary, if poffible: " Foreigners have doubled inaccurate Writer that ever prefumed to their Capital in our Funds; for not 20 calculate, or he must believe his Readers Years ago, what they had in our Funds moft inattentive ftupid Animals breath- was estimated but at Seven Millions; and ing-During the Nine Years of K. Wm's Two Years ago we were affured, that they War, the Expence of the Navy was had Fourteen Millions-From whence it is 18,061,938 that of the Land Forces plain, that the People of England have 20,982,034. of the Civil Lift 5,400,000l. oft thefe Seven Millions," &c.-Suppof which, together with fome incidental ing this Fact to be as Mr Hampden would Charges, makes the Whole to amount, up. B perfuade us it is, what Confequences can on a Medium, to 5,000,000 l. per Ann, and be drawn from thence to justify the Abupwards. Now, let Mr Hampden fhew, fentees? But, as there can't be a stronger that The prefent Expence of the Current Proof in Favour of the Adminiftration, Service of the Year, the prefent Civil Lift, than this very Inftance of the Increase of and the Accounting Fund, amount to near the Capital of Foreigners, his own Argu 5,000,000 l. annually. ments make moft against his Favourites.


As thofe engag'd in a Fray are more incapable than Standers-by, to form a right Judgment of what paffes; in like manner may Foreigners be better Judges of our domeftic Tranfactions than we ourselves. For, as they are not prejudiced, as I am afraid moft of us are here at home, they judge with greater Exactnefs, as they look on with greater Temper and Moderation. If then, they who obferve with greatest Perfpicuity the Strength and Foible of the Government, double their Credit to us under the Difadvantage of a notable Diminution of Interest upon our Funds, 'tis the ftrongest Proof, that they approve of the E Measures of the Administration, and that they are the most falutary, because they are approved of by the moft equitable difcerning Judges. Thus the Increase of the Capital of Foreigners, far from juftifying the Abfentees, is an Evidence of the Imprudence and Malevolence of their Conduct. But to examine the other Part of Mr Hampden's Infinuation.

But not contented to have faid, in Con- C tradiction to the most obvious Proofs, that the prefent annual Expence, abftracted from the Intereft of the National Debt, exceeds our Expence during K. Wm's Wars, be adds, for fear he had not enough infill'd the Poifon, "To this must be added, that the People now pay about Seven Millions a Year in Taxes, not quite Forty times as much as they did in Q. Elizabeth's Time, and only double to what they paid in K. Wm's Reign.' Tho' it be notorious, that during 9 Years of that Reign the Expence was above 5,000,000l. per Ann. here is an Infinuation, that it was but 3,500,000 l. fince "Seven Millions is only double to what the People paid in K. Wm's Reign." One may calily perceive why our Author has taken fo very uncommon Pains to exonerate K. Wm's, and, indeed, all the Reigns preceding the prefent; for without drawing the Comparifon partially, he could not caft that Weight of Odium on the Adminiftration, as would juftify the Conduct of his Abfenting Patriots.

But the Difproportion of Revenue is not his only Argument in favour of thofe Gentlemen, he draws a thoufand other In ferences equally abfurd. For Inftance: "What Man, or Men of Honour and Probity could fit down tamely, and fee a fmall Part of the People enriching them. felves at the Expence of the Majority, by dividing amongst them annually a Re venue of Seven Millions?" Tho' this, in other Words, be the genuine Senfe of One Part of his Apology; yet, in almost the fame Breath, we find him lamenting thofe, whom he infinuates to be thus enrich'd: " Are not many of them (the prefent Nobility and Gentry) begger'd with Places and Penfions? How iew of them

"Becaufe Foreigners have doubled their Capital from Seven to Fourteen Millions, the People of England have loft the exceeding Seven Millions."A very extraordinary Pofition, without the Shadow of an Argument to fupport it! Foreigners G muft have doubled their Capital, by nee drawing their Intereft from us, and fo leaving it to fwell into a Capital, or by making fresh Remittances into our Coun try, or by both, which is most likely. Will Mr Hampden fay, that in either, or all thefe Cafes, England lofes Seven Mil H lions? I am fure a lefs daring Writer would not. I Foreigners don't draw their Interet away, it can't be faid they are a Drain upon us; and if they make ficfh Remittances, they contribute to


« ForrigeFortsæt »