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Thus by the time of the awakening, while few states had

common schools, with the organization of districts, appointment of school officers, and local taxation provided by the legislature. Even then the acts were largely 'permissive,' the tax was not exacted from anyone who objected, and for some time various laws allowed public funds to be paid to existing private schools for the tuition of the poor. The complete system with a state superintendent was first organized in Ohio by 1836, but a similar stage of development was not reached by the other two states until after the great period of common school development (1835-60) had passed over the country. Michigan, on the other hand, as early as 1817 established a 'catholepistemiad,' which was to include a university and a system of schools of all grades, and a dozen years later in its revision of the school laws provided for a department of education at the university and a state superintendency of schools. While under this territorial law of 1829 tuition fees were to be required, except from the poor, by the first state constitution in 1837 the school lands were taken over from the wasteful management of the towns, and a public school was required to be open for three months in every district. The state superintendency was also established, and before 1840 Michigan was well started with a complete system of common schools.

Condition of the Common Schools Prior to the Awakening. Thus, while some of the New England states, New York, and Ohio possessed the only definitely organized sys- organized systems of public education, the movement for lic education, common schools had made some progress in all sections the move- of the country even before the educational awakening mon schools spread through the land. A radical modification had

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taken place in the European institutions with which had made education in the United States began. To meet the everywhere demands of the new environment, education had become in elementary, more democratic and less religious and sectarian. Wealth and higher had become much greater and material interests had met with a marked growth. The old aristocratic institutions had begun to disappear. Town and district schools had been taking the place of the old church, private, and 'field' schools, and in some of the cities the foundation for public education was being laid by quasi-public societies or even through local taxation. The academies had replaced the 'grammar' schools, and the colleges had lost their distinctly ecclesiastical character. State universities were starting in the South and Northwest. All these evidences of the growth of democracy, nonsectarianism, popular training, and the social movement in education were destined to be greatly multiplied and spread before long. Such an awakening will be found to be characteristic of the great development of common schools that took place in the decades around the middle of the nineteenth century. But, before pursuing the subject further, we must direct our attention to some new reforms in method and content that were being introduced by Pestalozzi into education in Europe and were destined to produce a great stimulus in the public systems of the United States.

SUPPLEMENTARY READING

I. SOURCES

CLEWS, ELSIE W. Educational Legislation and Administration of the Colonial Governments.

HENING, W. W. The Statutes-at-large of Virginia.

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HINSDALE, B. A. Documents Illustrative of American Educa tional History (Report of the U. S. Commissioner of Education 1892-93, pp. 1225-1414.)

MASSACHUSETTS. Colonial Records.

II. AUTHORITIES

BARNARD, H. American Journal of Education, Vol. XXVII, pp. 17ff. BOONE, R. G. Education in the United States. Parts I and II. BOONE, R. G. History of Education in Indiana.

BOURNE, W. O.

New York.

History of the Public School Society of the City of

BROWN, E. E. The Making of Our Middle Schools. Chaps. III-XIV.

BRUMBAUGH, M. G. Life and Works of America's Pioneer Writer on Education.

CARLTON, F. T. Economic Influences upon Educational Progress in the United States, 1820-50 (Bulletin of the University of Wisconsin, 1908).

CUBBERLEY, E. P. Changing Conceptions of Education.

CURRY, O. H. Education at the South.

DEXTER, E. G.

Chaps. I-VI.

History of Education in the United States.

HINSDALE, B. A. Horace Mann and the Common School Revival. Chap. I.

JACKSON, G. L. The Development of School Support in Colonial Massachusetts.

JOHNSTON, R. M. Early Educational Life in Middle Georgia. KILPATRICK, W. H. The Dutch Schools of New Netherland and Colonial New York.

MCCRADY, E. Education in South Carolina prior to and during the Revolution (Collections of the Historical Society of South Carolina. Volume IV).

MARTIN, G. H. Evolution of the Massachusetts Public School System. Lects. I-III.

MAYO, A. D. Report of the United States Commissioner of Education. 1893-94, XVI; 1894-95, XXVIII; 1895–96, VI-VII; 1897-98, XI; and 1898-99, VIII.

MONROE, P. and KILPATRICK, W. H. Colonial Schools (Monroe

Cyclopaedia of Education).

PALMER, A. E. The New York Public School.

PRATT, D. J. Annals of Public Education in the State of New York.

RANDALL, S. S. History of the Common School System of the
State of New York. First and Second Periods.

SMITH, W. L. Historical Sketch of Education in Michigan.
SMITH, C. L. History of Education in North Carolina.

STEINER, B. C.

STEINER, B. C.

History of Education in Connecticut.

History of Education in Maryland.

STOCKWELL, T. B. History of Public Education in Rhode Island. SUZZALLO, H. The Rise of Local School Supervision in Massachu

setts.

UPDEGRAFF, H. The Origin of the Moving School in Massachu

setts.

WICKERSHAM, J. P. History of Education in Pennsylvania. Chaps. I-XVI.

CHAPTER V

The social and psycho

logical tendencies in Rousseau

OBSERVATION AND INDUSTRIAL TRAINING IN EDUCATION

Pestalozzi as the Successor of Rousseau. Having outlined the various phases and influences of philanthropic education and surveyed the rise of the common were greatly School in America, we may now turn again to the more developed by immediate development of the movements that found

Pestalozzi.

their roots in Rousseau. These received their first great growth through Pestalozzi. In the second chapter it was noted how Rousseau's 'naturalistic' doctrines logically pointed to a complete demolition of the artificial society and education of the times. A pause at this point would have led to anarchy. If civilization is not to disappear, social destruction must be followed by reconstruction. Of course the negative attitude of the Emile was itself accompanied by considerable positive advance in its suggestions for a natural training, but this advice was often unpractical and extreme and its main emphasis was upon the destruction of existing education. Hence the happiest educational results of Rousseau's work came through Pestalozzi, who especially supplemented that reformer's work upon the constructive side. Rousseau had shattered the eighteenth century edifice of despotism, privilege, and hypocrisy, and it remained for Pestalozzi to continue the erection of the more enduring structure he had started to build upon the ruins. Thus Pestalozzi became the first prominent educator to help Rousseau

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