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Emile is not to study geography, history, or languages, upon which pedagogues ordinarily depend to exhibit the attainments of their pupils, although these understand nothing of what they have memorized. "At the age of twelve, Emile will hardly know what a book is. But I shall be told it is very necessary that he know how to read. This I grant. It is necessary that he know how to read when reading is useful to him. Until then, it serves only to annoy him."

Incidentally, however, in order to make Emile tolerable in society, for he cannot entirely escape it, he must be given the idea of property and some idea of conduct. But this is simply because of practical necessity, and no moral education is to be given as such, for, "until he reaches the age of reason, he can form no idea of moral beings or social relations." He is to learn through 'natural consequences' until he arrives at the age for understanding moral precepts. If he breaks the furniture or the windows, let him suffer the inconveniences that arise from his act. Do not preach to him or punish him for lying, but afterward affect not to believe him even when he has spoken the truth. If he carelessly digs up the sprouting melons of the gardener, in order to plant beans for himself, let the gardener in turn uproot the beans, and thus cause him to learn the sacredness of property. As far as this moral training is given, then, it is to be indirect and incidental.

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However, between twelve and fifteen, after the in the third, demands of the boy's physical activities and of his in the natsenses have somewhat abated, there comes "an interval through cuwhen his faculties and powers are greater than his de- riosity and sires," when he displays an insistent curiosity con- vestigation;

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cerning natural phenomena and a constant appetite for rational knowledge. This period, which is dealt with in his third book, Rousseau declares to be intended by nature itself as "the time of labor, instruction, and study." But it is obvious even to our unpractical author that not much can be learned within three years, and he accordingly decides to limit instruction to "merely that which is useful." And even of useful studies the boy should not be expected to learn those "truths which require, for being comprehended, an understanding already formed, or which dispose an inexperienced mind to think falsely on other subjects.' After eliminating all useless, incomprehensible, and misleading studies, Rousseau finds that natural sciences alone remain as mental pabulum for the boy. Later in this third book, in order that Emile may informally learn the interdependence of men and may himself become economically independent, Rousseau adds industrial experience and the acquisition of the trade of cabinet-making to his training. But at this point Rousseau next considers the natural and so most effective method for acquiring these subjects. "Ask questions that are within his comprehension, and leave him to resolve them. Let him know nothing because you have told it to him, but because he has comprehended it himself; he is not to learn science, but to discover it. If you ever substitute in his mind authority for reason, he will no longer reason."

Rousseau holds that this may best be accomplished by appealing to the curiosity and interest in investiga tion, which are so prominent in the boy at this time. He illustrates with lesson plans this solution of the prob

1

lem of imparting knowledge. He contrasts the current methods of teaching astronomy and geography by means of globes, maps, and other misleading representations, with the more natural plan of stimulating inquiry through observing the sun when rising and setting during the different seasons, and through problems concerning the topography of the neighborhood. Emile is taught to appreciate the value of these subjects by being lost in the forest, and, in his efforts to find a way out, discovering a use for them. He learns the elements of electricity through meeting with a juggler, who attracts an artificial duck by means of a concealed magnet. He similarly discovers through experience the effect of cold and heat upon solids and liquids, and so comes to understand the thermometer and other instruments. Hence Rousseau feels that all knowledge of real value may be acquired most clearly and naturally without the use of rivalry or textbooks. "I hate books," he says; "they merely teach us to talk of what we do not know." But he finds an exception to this irrational method in one book, "where all the natural needs of man are exhibited in a manner obvious to the mind of a child, and where the means of providing for these needs are successively developed with the same facility." This book, Defoe's Robinson Crusoe,1 he felt, should be carefully studied by Emile.

The fourth book takes Emile from the age of fifteen to twenty. At this period the sex interests appear and

1 Hence Campe of the 'Philanthropinum,' which attempted to put Rousseau's doctrines into practice, wrote in imitation Robinson Crusoe Junior, and numerous similar works were produced. Of these the only well-known survivor is Swiss Family Robinson, written by Johann David Wyss in 1813.

cerning natural phenomena and a constant appetite for rational knowledge. This period, which is dealt with in his third book, Rousseau declares to be intended by nature itself as "the time of labor, instruction, and study." But it is obvious even to our unpractical author that not much can be learned within three years, and he accordingly decides to limit instruction to "merely that which is useful." And even of useful studies the boy should not be expected to learn those "truths which require, for being comprehended, an understanding already formed, or which dispose an inexperienced mind to think falsely on other subjects." After eliminating all useless, incomprehensible, and misleading studies, Rousseau finds that natural sciences alone remain as mental pabulum for the boy. Later in this third book, in order that Emile may informally learn the interdependence of men and may himself become economically independent, Rousseau adds industrial experience and the acquisition of the trade of cabinet-making to his training. But at this point Rousseau next considers the natural and so most effective method for acquiring these subjects. "Ask questions that are within his comprehension, and leave him to resolve them. Let him know nothing because you have told it to him, but because he has comprehended it himself; he is not to learn science, but to discover it. If you ever substitute in his mind authority for reason, he will no longer reason."

Rousseau holds that this may best be accomplished by appealing to the curiosity and interest in investiga tion, which are so prominent in the boy at this time. He illustrates with lesson plans this solution of the prob

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lem of imparting knowledge. He contrasts the current methods of teaching astronomy and geography by means of globes, maps, and other misleading representations, with the more natural plan of stimulating inquiry through observing the sun when rising and setting during the different seasons, and through problems concerning the topography of the neighborhood. Emile is taught to appreciate the value of these subjects by being lost in the forest, and, in his efforts to find a way out, discovering a use for them. He learns the elements of electricity through meeting with a juggler, who attracts an artificial duck by means of a concealed magnet. He similarly discovers through experience the effect of cold and heat upon solids and liquids, and so comes to understand the thermometer and other instruments. Hence Rousseau feels that all knowledge of real value may be acquired most clearly and naturally without the use of rivalry or textbooks. "I hate books," he says; "they merely teach us to talk of what we do not know." But he finds an exception to this irrational method in one book, "where all the natural needs of man are exhibited in a manner obvious to the mind of a child, and where the means of providing for these needs are successively developed with the same facility." This book, Defoe's Robinson Crusoe,1 he felt, should be carefully studied by Emile.

The fourth book takes Emile from the age of fifteen to twenty. At this period the sex interests appear and

1 Hence Campe of the 'Philanthropinum,' which attempted to put Rousseau's doctrines into practice, wrote in imitation Robinson Crusoe Junior, and numerous similar works were produced. Of these the only well-known survivor is Swiss Family Robinson, written by Johann David Wyss in 1813.

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