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training was given through the ordinary concrete relations and experiences of life.

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The Permanent Influence of Pestalozzi.-It is easy Pestalozzi to exaggerate the achievements of this almost sainted originality, reformer of Switzerland. Pestalozzi's methods were practicality, neither very original nor well carried out. His chief ency, and was merit lay in developing and making positive the suggestions offered by Rousseau, and in utilizing them in the work of the schools. Even in this he failed somewhat in practicality and consistency. He was often unable to work out his own methods. While he stated his views in general most convincingly, we have seen that many of the details had to be managed by his assistants and followers. Occasionally, when he undertook to apply the methods himself, he was strangely inconsistent. Although strongly opposed to all verbal and memoriter teaching, in language work he made the mistake of shaping the sentences for his pupils and having them repeat after him; he insisted upon teaching reading and spelling by pronouncing every possible variety of syllable; and in geography, history, and nature study he required the pupils to commit mere lists of important places, facts, or objects arranged in alphabetic order. Moreover, as can be seen both in his educational experiments and his writings, Pestalozzi was groping and never possessed full vision. He did not grasp definite educational principles in a scientific way, but, like Rousseau, obtained his ideas of teaching from sympathetic insight into the minds of children. His writings for the most part record his empirical efforts at an effective training, and are revelations of methods of teaching in the concrete rather than the abstract. His works are also poorly arranged,

But his work contained the

repetitious, and inaccurate, and there was little organization or order in his schools.

The inconsistency, incompleteness, and lack of breadth germ of mod- in Pestalozzi's work, however, are of small import when ern pedagogy compared with its influence upon society and education. and educational reform. The value of his achievements rests, not in their ade

quacy or finality, but in the fact that they contained the germ of all modern pedagogy and educational reform. In the eighteenth century caste ruled through wealth and education, while the masses, who supported the owners of the land in idleness and luxury, were sunk in ignorance, poverty, and vice. The schools for the common people were exceedingly few, the content of education was largely limited by ecclesiastical authority, and the methods were traditional and verbal. The teachers generally had received little training, and were selected at random. Often it was only the old soldier, widow, servant, or workman who gathered the children for an hour or two on Sundays to learn the rudiments. Ordinarily the pay was wretched, no lodgings were provided for the teacher, and he had often to add domestic service to his He held edu- duties, in order to secure food and clothing. In the midst of such conditions appeared this most famous of modern educators, who never ceased to work for the reformation thus become of society. As Voltaire, Rousseau, and others had held one of the that the panacea for the corrupt times was rationalism, ponents of the atheism, deism, socialism, anarchy, or individualism, Pespsychological talozzi found his remedy in education. Like Rousseau, he keenly felt the injustice, unnaturalness, and degradation of the existing society, but he was not content to stop with mere destruction and negations. He saw what education might do to purify social conditions and to elevate

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the people by intellectual, moral, and industrial training, and he burned to apply it universally and to develop methods in keeping with nature. He would make Rousseau's 'naturalism' specific and extend it to all. In this he may be considered one of the greatest exponents of the social movement in modern education. His efforts to evolve a natural method of teaching were likewise fruitful, and mark the greatest stimulus given to the modern psychological movement in education. His experiments have stimulated educational theorists, instead of accepting formal principles and traditional processes, to work out carefully and patiently the development of the child mind and to embody the results in practice. From him have come the prevailing reforms in the present teaching of From him language lessons, arithmetic, drawing, writing, reading, many modern geography, elementary science, and music. In harmony reforms in with his improved methods, Pestalozzi also started a different type of discipline. His work made clear the new spirit in the school by which it has approached the atmos- reading, geogphere of the home. He found the proper relation of pupil mentary and teacher to exist in sympathy and friendship, or, as he science, and states it, in 'love.' This attitude constituted the greatest contrast to that of the brutal schools of the times, and introduced a new conception into education.

What, then, if Pestalozzi is right in saying: "My life has produced nothing whole, nothing complete; my work cannot, then, either be a whole, nor complete"? If he never produced a closed and perfected system, so much the better. It is not merely the form of his experiments nor even the results, but the fact that he was ready to experiment, and did not depend upon tradition, that made the work of Pestalozzi suggestive and fruitful afterward.

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In fact, whenever his practice was most fixed, it was least effective; and wherever his spirit has since prevailed, the most intelligent practice has resulted. The nineteenth century was suffused with his ideals, and his methods have become the basis of much subsequent reform. His work has constantly grown more significant as the years have passed, and the indebtedness of modern educational method to him will be more evident when we have seen the part he played in developing the practice of Herbart and Froebel.

The Spread of Pestalozzian Schools and Methods spread by his through Europe.-The 'observational' methods of Pestadisciples lozzi and institutions similar to his were soon spread by his assistants and others throughout Europe. Strange to say, as a result of their familiarity with his weaknesses and the conservatism resulting from isolation, the Swiss were, as a whole, rather slow to incorporate the Pestalozzian improvements. Zürich was, however, an exception to the general rule. This city was naturally more progressive and had previously been a seat of reform in matters religious.1 Here Zeller of Würtemberg, who had visited Burgdorf and helped conduct a Pestalozzian training school at Hofwyl,2 was early invited to give three courses of lectures in aid of the establishment of a teachers' seminary based upon the principles of Pestalozzi. A large number of teachers, clergymen, and persons of prominence heard these lectures, and thus increased the body of those disseminating the new educational reforms. Krüsi, after leaving the institute at

1 See Graves, A History of Education during the Transition, pp. 189f.

2 See p. 155.

Yverdon, also founded a number of schools and carried Pestalozzianism into various parts of Switzerland. He finally, in 1833, became the director of a teachers' seminary at his native village of Gais. Near this institution he founded two Pestalozzian schools under the management of his daughter, and during the last decade of his life contributed largely to the Pestalozzian literature. Many other disciples eventually started or reorganized schools in various parts of Switzerland upon the principles of Pestalozzi, and, before the middle of the nineteenth century, his 'observation' methods were in general use, and educational conditions had been greatly changed in Switzerland.

But the reforms in method never secured the hold upon the country of their origin that they did in Germany. The innovations were most remarkable in Prussia, and the elementary education there has come to be referred to as the 'Prussian-Pestalozzian school system.' The name was first used by the great educational leader, Diesterweg, in his address at the centennial celebration of Pestalozzi's birth, but it so aptly indicates the influence of the Swiss reformer that it has remained ever since. By the beginning of the nineteenth century Pestalozzianism began to find its way into Prussia. In 1801 the appeal of Pestalozzi for a public subscription in behalf of his project at Burgdorf was warmly supported. In 1802 Herbart's account of Pestalozzi's Idea of an A B C of Observation attracted much attention. A representative was sent from Prussia to Burgdorf to report upon the new system in 1803. Meanwhile the Pestalozzian missionaries were fast converting the land. Plamann, who had visited Burgdorf, in 1805 established

Prussia

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