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And, in order to interest

wealthy young

men in the

life it was natural to develop other employments and to train cartmakers, blacksmiths, carpenters, locksmiths, shoemakers, tailors, mechanics, and workers in wood, iron, and leather. Workshops for these trades were established upon the estate, and the pupils in the agricultural institute were enabled to select a training in a wide range of employments, without neglecting book instruction. By this means, too, they could support themselves by their labor while being educated. Through the institute also a considerable number of the pupils were trained to be directors of similar institutions or to become rural school-teachers. Fellenberg thought it important that all who were to teach in the common schools should have a thorough acquaintance with the practical labor of a farm, the means of self-support, and the life and habits of the majority of their pupils.

But the work of Fellenberg did not stop there. From the beginning he had felt that the wealthy should understand and be more in sympathy with the laboring classes, education of and learn how to direct their work more intelligently. the poor and hold them Hence he began very early an agricultural course for longer, he landowners, and many young men of the wealthy classes established a 'literary in- came to show a striking interest in his deep-soil ploughstitute.' ing, draining, irrigating, and other means of educating the poor. But these wealthier youths remained at the institute so short a time that he could not extend his ideals very widely. To retain them longer at Hofwyl, in 1809 he opened a 'literary institute,' which, besides the usual academic studies, used Pestalozzi's object lessons and strove to develop physical activities. Moreover, the pupils in the literary institute had to cultivate gardens, work on the farm, engage in carpentering, turning, and

other mechanical occupations, and in many ways come into touch and mutual understanding with the poorer boys in the agricultural institute. The wealthy learned to dignify labor, and the poor, instead of envying those in the higher stations of life, became friendly and desirous of coöperating with them. Eventually there arose an independent community of youth, managing its own affairs outside of school, arranging its own occupations, games, and tours, choosing its own officers, and making its own laws. Within this little world was provided a training for society at large, with its various classes, associations, and corporations, which Fellenberg seems to have regarded as divinely ordained. Likewise, in 1823, a school A 'real' for poor girls was opened by his wife, and four years later he started a 'real,' or practical, school for the middle classes, which was intermediate between the two 'institutes.'

Fellenberg's Educational Aim and Course. Thus Pestalozzi's principle of observation as the groundwork of memory was strengthened by Fellenberg's emphasis upon actual doing. Manual activity Fellenberg felt to be a necessary complement to sense perception and object teaching. "For what has been done," said he, "and done with thought, will be retained more firmly by the memory, and will bring a surer experience than that which has been only seen or heard." Even more than with Pestalozzi, the pupil was to be treated not as a mere recipient, but as an agent capable of collecting, arranging, and using his own ideas. From various letters of Fellenberg we have definite information concerning the details of the curriculum at Hofwyl. Besides the vocational training, the course in the agricultural institute included reading, writing,

school was

also started for the middle school for

classes, and a

poor girls was opened.

Fellenberg

strove to com

bine observa

tion with

actual doing.

teachers,

The studies arithmetic, religion, drawing, singing, history, geography, in the agricultural in- natural history, botany, and geometry, or about the stitute, same range of subjects as was dealt with in Pestalozzi's the school for 'institute.' The curriculum in the school for girls must girls, have been very similar, except that the industrial work consisted of the household arts, cooking, washing, cleaning, spinning, and knitting. In the course for the course for teachers, beside manual labor on the farm, special training was given in grammar, religion, drawing, geography, history of Switzerland, agriculture, and 'anthropology,' which included physiology, hygiene, and first aid to the injured. Those who seemed qualified for a more thorough course were allowed to elect work in the literary institute. The professional training consisted in a thorough study of the subject-matter they were to teach, lessons on communicating instruction, and practice teaching under inspection, followed by criticism and discussion. The and the liter- education for the higher classes in the literary institute included some of the usual work in the classics, but stressed the modern languages, sciences, drawing, music, and practical work. The physical training was given through gymnastics, military exercises, swimming, riding, walking, and skating. As in the other courses, religious studies also had an important place.

ary institute.

Industrial Training in the Schools of Europe.-The educational institutions of Fellenberg were well managed and proved very successful. The number of pupils in the agricultural institute soon increased from a mere family circle to over one hundred and fifty, and the idea of education through industrial training spread rapidly. While, after the death of Fellenberg in 1844, the schools at Fellenberg, Hofwyl, through mismanagement and political changes,

While the schools at

Hofwyl disap

peared after

the death of

trial princi

Europe,

gradually declined, their principles became embodied in their induseducation everywhere. Various types of industrial edu- ples spread cation came to supplement academic courses, and ex- through tend the work of the school to a larger number of pupils. Thus the tendency of modern civilization to care for the education of the unfortunate through industrial training has sprung from the philanthropic spirit of Pestalozzi and his practical collaborator, Fellenberg, and their endeavors to furnish educational opportunities for all. The poor, the defective, and the delinquent have, through vocational training, been redeemed and given a chance in life, and many children have been kept in school that would inevitably have fallen by the wayside. Public schools, special industrial schools, orphanages, institutions for the deaf and blind, reformatories, and even prisons have yielded rich harvests because of Pestalozzi's first sowing.

Movements of this sort have been apparent in all advanced countries. The industrial institutions rapidly increased in Switzerland, beginning in 1816 with the Switzerland, school in the neighboring district of Meykirch. In 1832 a cantonal teachers' association was formed at Berne, with Fellenberg as president and Wehrli as vice president, to reform the methods of organization and instruction current in Switzerland. Every canton soon had its 'farm school,' in which, wrote Henry Barnard, "the school instruction occupies three hours in the summer and four in winter; the remainder of the day being devoted to work in the field or garden, or at certain seasons of the year and for a class of pupils, in some indoor trade or craft." Industrial training was also introduced into most of the Swiss normal schools. In Germany the industrial work Germany,

France,

1

suggested by Pestalozzi and Fellenberg came into successful operation in many of the orphanages and most of the reform schools. A most striking example of the latter was the 'House of Redemption,' opened in 1833 near Hamburg. Here boys and girls of criminal tendencies were given an industrial training and then apprenticed, and comparatively few ever lapsed into evil ways after leaving the school. Later industrial education was taken up by the Fortbildungsschulen ('continuation schools') of the regular system. At the reform and continuation schools of France industrial training has long formed the distinctive element in the course. Educators and statesmen of England, especially Lord Brougham, likewise early commended the work of Fellenberg, and industrial training shortly found a foothold in that country. There and England. was opened in 1835 at Queenswood Hall, Hampshire, the famous George Edmondson school, which was provided with agricultural and trade departments, including blacksmithing and printing. In 1839 the Battersea Training Establishment was opened upon the same basis as the Swiss normal schools. At the well-known Red Hill school and farm for young criminals, established in 1849, and other similar institutions, vocational training has also proIn the United duced remarkable results.

States 'man-
ual labor' in-
stitutions
were started

to enable stu

Industrial Institutions in the United States.—The industrial work of the Pestalozzi-Fellenberg system began to appear in the United States about the close of the first dents to earn quarter of the nineteenth century. After that, for twenty through col- years or so, there sprang up a large number of institutions of secondary or higher grade with 'manual labor' features in addition to the literary work. The primary

their way

lege and to

preserve their health;

1 See p. 288, footnote 2.

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