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object of the industrial work in these institutions was to enable students to earn their way through school or college and recruit sectarian ranks during a period of strong denominational controversy. The other great argument for this training was that it secured physical exercise for those under the strain of severe intellectual labor. It was the first serious academic recognition of the need of a 'sound mind in a sound body,' and did much to overcome the prevailing tendency of students toward tuberculosis and to furnish a sane substitute for the escapades and pranks in which college life abounded. The first of these manual labor institutions were established in the New England and Middle States between 1820 and 1830, and within a dozen years the manual labor system was adopted in theological schools, colleges, and academies from Maine to Tennessee. The success of this feature at Andover Theological Seminary, where it was begun in 1826 for 'invigorating and preserving health, without any reference to pecuniary profit,' was especially influential in causing it to be extended. Much impetus was also given the movement through the writings and addresses of Rev. Elias Cornelius, secretary of the American Educational Society, who perceived the terrible inroads made upon health by education without systematic exercise. From 1830 to 1832 many articles and lectures describing and commending the Fellenberg system were read before learned societies and published in the leading educational journals. The 'Society for Promoting Manual Labor in Literary Institutions,' founded in 1831, appointed a general agent to visit the chief colleges in the Middle West and South, call attention to the value of manual labor, and issue a report upon the subject.

but, as material conditions

industrial

Little attention, however, was given in the literary institutions to the pedagogical principles underlying this work. As material conditions improved and formal soimproved, the cial life developed, the impracticability of the scheme was realized, and the industrial side of these institutions was given up. This physical phase was then replaced by college athletics. By 1840-50 most of the schools and colleges that began as 'manual labor institutes' had become purely literary.

features were

given up.

Industrial

also been

the solution of

defectives and delin

the efficiency

system.

A further movement in industrial education was found education has in the establishment of such schools as Carlisle, Hampton, adopted for and Tuskegee, which adopted this training as a solution peculiar racial for peculiar racial problems. But the original idea of problems, for Pestalozzi, to secure redemption through manual labor the training of was not embodied in American institutions until the last quarter of the century. After 1873, when Miss Mary quents, and for increasing Carpenter, the English prison reformer, visited the United of the public States, contract labor and factory work in the reformatories began to be replaced by farming, gardening, and kindred domestic industries. At the present time, moreover, the schools for delinquents and defectives in the New England, Middle Atlantic, Middle West, and most of the Southern states, have the Fellenberg training, though without much grasp of the educational principles involved. Finally, within the last decade there has also been a growing tendency to employ industrial training or trade education for the sake of holding pupils longer in school and increasing the efficiency of the public system. In so far as it has tended to replace the more general values of manual training, once so popular, with skill in some particular industrial process, this modern movement represents a return from the executive occupational work started by

Froebel1 to the philanthropic practice of Fellenberg and Pestalozzi.

Hence it was largely through the practical development of this great disciple at Hofwyl that Pestalozzi has had a marked influence upon the social, as well as upon the psychological, movement in modern education.

SUPPLEMENTARY READING

I. SOURCES

FELLENBERG, P. E. von. Letters from Hofwyl.

NEEF, F. J. N. Sketch of a Plan and Method of Education and The Method of Instructing Children Rationally in the Arts of Reading and Writing.

PESTALOZZI, J. H. The Evening Hour of a Hermit, Letters on Early Education, Leonard and Gertrude, and How Gertrude Teaches Her Children.

II. AUTHORITIES

BACHMAN, F. P. The Social Factor in Pestalozzi's Theory of Education (Education, Vol. XXII, pp. 402–414).

BARNARD, H. American Journal of Education. Vol. III, pp. 591-596; X, 81-92; XIII, 323-331; XV, 231-236; XXVI, 359-368.

GRAVES, F. P. Great Educators of Three Centuries. Chap. IX. GREEN, J. A. Pestalozzi's Educational Writings.

GREEN, J. A. Life and Work of Pestalozzi.

GUIMPS, R. de. Pestalozzi, His Aim and Work. (Translated by Crombie.)

HAMILTON, C. J. Henri Pestalozzi (Educational Review, Vol. III, pp. 173-184).

HERISSON, F. Pestalozzi, élève de J. J. Rousseau.

HOLMAN, H. Pestalozzi.

HOYT, C. O. Studies in the History of Modern Education. Chap.

III.

1 See pp. 237ff and 244f.

KELLOGG, A. M. Life of Pestalozzi.

KING, W. The Institutions of De Fellenberg.

KRÜSI, H. Pestalozzi, His Life, Work, and Influence.

MISAWA, T. Modern Educators and Their Ideals. Chap. VI. MONROE, W. S. Joseph Neef and Pestalozzianism in the United States (Education, Vol. XIV, pp. 449–461).

MONROE, W. S. The Pestalozzian Movement in the United States. MORF, H. Zur Biographie Pestalozzi's.

MUNROE, J. P. The Educational Ideal. Pp. 179–187.

PARKER, S. C. History of Modern Elementary Education. Chaps. XIII-XVI.

PAYNE, J. Lectures on the History of Education. Lect. IX.
PINLOCHE, A. Pestalozzi and the Foundation of the Modern
Elementary School.

QUICK, R. H. Educational Reformers. Pp. 354-383.
SHELDON, E. A. The Oswego Movement.

CHAPTER VI

THE COMMON SCHOOL REVIVAL IN NEW ENGLAND

1

second quar

century there

lic education,

Location, Time, and Scope of the Revival.-The in- During the terest in the improved methods of Pestalozzi and other ter of the reformers that was manifesting itself everywhere in the nineteenth United States during the second quarter of the nine- took place a teenth century seems to have been but one phase of a rapid adremarkably much larger movement. This awakening has been gen- vance in puberally known as 'the common school revival,' which which has first became influential during the latter part of the dec- been generade between 1830 and 1840. It had its storm center in New England, since this portion of the United States had especially fallen into an educational decadence, but everywhere it greatly furthered the cause of public education, which had as yet not made a marked advance in any state.

As we have found in Chapter IV, half a dozen of the states had started an organization of common schools, and in a dozen others permanent school funds had been started, an influential minority of leading citizens were constantly advocating universal education, and pub

1 'Revival' is an unfortunate term that has come to be accepted through long usage. It belongs to mediæval philosophy, and, if we hold to evolution and progress, it scarcely conveys our meaning. While its general use is recognized, it has been avoided here and in other chapters as far as possible. It more nearly affords an accurate description of the movement in New England than in the other parts of the country, since educational conditions there had actually retrograded.

ally known as 'the common

school re

vival.'

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