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educational history, of contemporaneous educa

tional systems,

teachers, and of a variety of

other themes.

the earliest times down into the latter half of the nineteenth century. It furnishes accounts of all contemporaneous systems in Europe and America, descriptions of professional of institutions for the professional training of teachers, training of and essays upon courses of study for colleges and technical schools, the education of defectives and delinquents, physical education, school architecture, great educators, and a large variety of other themes. While it is always most reliable in its treatises upon foreign educational activity, of even greater value is its practical grasp of educational life in America from the beginning. It contains the greatest collection of interesting monographs upon the development of educational ideals and organization in the various states, and is the most complete description in literature of the educational life of a nation.

First United States Commissioner of Education.Barnard was at various times offered the presidency of institutions of higher learning, but, with the exception of brief periods in the headship of the University of Wisconsin (1859-1861) and of St. John's College, Maryland (1866-1867), he always declined to serve in this capacity. He must have learned that he was adapted neither by health nor temperament to an administrative position, and his interest was chiefly in the common schools and educational literature. In fact, even the connection with the University of Wisconsin appealed to him mostly because of what he hoped he might be able to do for popular education and for the training of teachers through the accompanying office of Agent of the Board of Normal Regents. His work at St. John's College had barely started, when he was appointed the first United States Commissioner of Education. This office Barnard

to have the

through a

had been constantly trying to have established ever since he had found, as Secretary of the Connecticut Board, how absolutely lacking the federal government was He had hoped in school statistics and educational documents. Upon government several occasions he is recorded to have brought the undertake this work of pubmatter before a national organization of teachers. He lication hoped especially to have the government, with its larger commissionerinfluence and greater means, perform the sort of service that he afterward undertook at his own expense in the American Journal of Education. In this way facilities might be secured to collect and publish reliable educational statistics, and to issue a library of independent treatises, which should, when complete, form an encyclopædia of education.

ship of edu

cation, and,

when he was called to this office, he suspended his

Journal and

used the product of his investigations in his annual



The bureau was not created for many years, and then through the immediate initiative of another, but when Henry Barnard was called as first commissioner in 1867, he organized the office practically upon the lines he had previously suggested. He suspended his Journal and used the product of his investigations in the annual reports of the office. His wide experience with European and American educational institutions and systems, together with his splendid library, enabled him to fill his publications with rich material and accomplish the work rapidly. He started that searching inquiry into the administration, management, and instruction of educational institutions of every grade, and into all educational societies, school funds, legislation, architecture, documents, and benefactions that have since been maintained by the Bureau years later of Education. However, within three years a change placed in the in the national administration brought a new incum- office, and rebent into the commissionership. Barnard then gave his Journal.

But three

he was dis

turned to his

This was his life work and marked him

sentative of

the literary



literary efforts once more to his beloved Journal, and until his death a generation later it absorbed his entire attention.

Value of Barnard's Educational Collections.-Hence an experience of more than thirty years in the inspection and administration of schools in America and illuminating visits to Europe proved only introductory and as the repre- auxiliary to Barnard's real life work of collecting a great educational compendium. By temperament, native side of the ability, and habit, he proved himself well fitted to be the leading representative of the much desiderated literary side of the awakening. Through his work American education was, in its period of greatest development, granted the opportunity of looking beyond the partial and local results of the first half century of national life. It was enabled to modify and adapt to its own uses the educational theories, practices, and organizations of the leading civilized peoples, and to bring together for a comparative view sections and states that were widely separated. Those who have criticized Barnard's American Journal of Education on the ground of its being confused, unskillful, and careless in its editorship, have failed to understand his true purpose. The editor did not intend to build a universal encyclopædia of education, but to do all "with special reference to the conditions and wants of our own country." To that end he often found it necessary to condense important works or to present highly scientific methods and profound philosophic systems in popular form. Nor was it possible to classify and work out a connected and complete historical account, when there were no reliable records or collections of materials in existence.

It is not a


account, but a great the

saurus of material.

It was

necessary that some one should first gather the information from newspapers, pamphlets, memorials, monographs, and plans, and publish it as it was found. In this way he accomplished a more valuable work than if he had published a systematic history of education in the United States. The Journal was his crowning work and a means of international repute. The expositions of Vienna and Paris, as well as those in this country, decorated him with medals, and he was lauded by educators in every land. This great thesaurus of information and enlightenment, in connection with the virile efforts of Mann and other practical leaders in education throughout the country, has made the American educational awakening one of the most fruitful in history, and has enabled it to become both an inspiration and a guide in the remarkable development of the common schools and state educational systems that has since taken place.



BARNARD, H. American Journal of Education.

MANN, H. Annual Reports of the Secretary of the Massachusetts Board of Education (1838–1849), Common School Journal, and Lectures on Education.

MANN, MARY. Lectures and Annual Reports on Education of Horace Mann (Vol. II of Atkinson's Life and Works of Horace Mann).

SUPERINTENDENTS AND COMMISSIONERS OF EDUCATION. Annual Reports of schools in the various states of New England.


BOWEN, F. Mr. Mann and the Teachers of the Boston Schools (North American Review, Vol. LX, pp. 224–246).

BOONE, R. G. History of Education in the United States. Chaps. VII-VIII.

BROWNING, O. Henry Barnard (Encyclopædia Britannica). COMBE, G. Education in America: State of Massachusetts (Edinburgh Review, Vol. LXXIII, pp. 486-502).

DEXTER, E. G. History of Education in the United States. Chaps. VII-XIII.

GRAVES, F. P. Great Educators of Three Centuries. Chap. XIII. HARRIS, W. T. Horace Mann (Educational Review, Vol. XII, pp. 105-119).

HINSDALE, B. A. Horace Mann and the Common School Revival in the United States.

MANN, MARY. Life of Horace Mann.

MARTIN, G. H. Horace Mann and the Revival of Education in Massachusetts (Educational Review, Vol. V, pp. 434-450). MARTIN, G. H. The Evolution of the Massachusetts Public School System. Lects. IV-VI.

MAYO, A. D. Horace Mann and Henry Barnard (Report of the United States Commissioner of Education, 1896-1897. Vol. I, Chaps. XV and XVI).

MONROE, W. S. The Educational Labors of Henry Barnard. PARKER, F. W. Horace Mann (Educational Review, Vol. XII, pp. 65-74).

WINSHIP, A. E. Horace Mann the Educator.

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