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governor, secretary of state, and others for several years urged the establishment of state normal schools, and at length, in 1844, the first was opened at Albany. This pioneer institution was eventually followed by ten others. In 1856, after considerable agitation, a threequarters of a mill tax was placed upon the property valuation of the state, and during the next dozen years many improvements were made in the disbursing and accounting of public funds. At length, in 1867, the long and finally (1867) made fight that had been made for entirely free education was education successful. Until then nearly fifty thousand children entirely free, had been deprived of all education, because their parents were too proud to secure payment of their tuition fees


and allowed

New York City (1842) to board of

establish a


School Soci

by confessing themselves paupers. It was during this era of progress, too, that New York City was, in 1842, into which allowed to place the direction of its schools in the hands the Public of a board of education, elected by the people, instead ety was merged (1853). of giving over the city's share of the state funds to a quasi-public society, controlled by a close corporation. For eleven years, however, the Public School Society refused to give up its work, but by 1853 it decided to disband and merge its buildings and funds with those of the city.1 Pennsylvania was slower than New York in showing than New the effects of the educational awakening, but the leaven York, Pennsylvania, was at work. While a number of progressive governors through and other statesmen continually recommended the devel- Thomas H. opment of public education, and the 'Pennsylvania So- other statesciety for the Promotion of Common Schools' had been men, began organized, the towering leader in this movement was tinue apThomas H. Burrowes. As secretary of state and ex officio to private in1 See pp. 97f.

While slower

Burrowes and

to discon


(1843) and to

abolish the

feature of the

first public

school law (1848), and

established a


state system

of education.

tually a sep

arate depart

ment, and soon (1857) came under

the care of an independent


superintendent of schools (1836-1838), as a private citizen, public speaker, and educational journalist (1838–1860), and as state superintendent (1860-1862), he constantly urged a complete system of public education, the establishment of normal schools, a separate state department finally (1854) of education, and the organization of state and county supervision. In the interest of common schools, he visited, interviewed, and circularized every portion of the state, This was vir organized meetings, and wrote articles and treatises. By 1843 school directors of counties and boroughs were empowered to examine and certify teachers and to appoint a salaried inspector of schools, and the appropriations to colleges, academies, and seminaries were cut in superintend- two, preparatory to discontinuing them altogether. Five years later the 'permissive' feature of the law of 1834 was abolished,1 and the two hundred districts that had thus far refused to establish public schools were forced to do so under its provisions. In 1854 a revised school law was passed, which, after twenty years, now made the state system of education complete. It established in the secretary of state's office a deputy superintendent of schools, who had virtually a separate department; provided for county superintendents; and improved the teachers' examinations, graded schools, introduced uniform text-books, and defined the limits of a school district as coterminous with the township. The next six years constituted a period of great activity in educational reform, and in 1857 the state educational department was made absolutely independent under the care of a superintendent, and a system of normal schools was provided. Twelve of these institutions were to be estab

A system of normal schools was also provided (1857).

1 See p. 102,

New Jersey eventually ap plied its state funds to

public schools

lowed towns

and, after a

was estab

creased, a

lished at first by private enterprise and without state subsidy. By 1877 they were in operation in ten counties and were maintained largely by the state, and a number of others have at various times since been added. Educational progress in New Jersey also took some time to get under way, but when the reforms once started, they continued until an excellent system of common schools had been inaugurated. In 1838 the limitation only and alof state funds to the education of the poor was removed, to levy local and the apportionment of the income from them was taxes (1838), thereafter applied only to public schools. The townships state suwere allowed to levy local taxes to the amount of twice perintendency what they received from the state, but for about a decade lished (1848), the approprianot more than one-half to two-thirds of them adopted a tions were tax, and the state money was spent so wastefully that greatly innearly four-fifths of the cost of public schools had to state normal be paid by tuition fees. After 1848, when a state super- established, intendency was established, the development was more and county rapid. Within a dozen years, the appropriations were was introgreatly increased, the expenditures in the townships duced. rose to more than twelvefold, one-quarter of the schools became absolutely free, a state normal school was established at Trenton, and county supervision was introduced. Thus before the Civil War New Jersey had been brought out of the depressing educational conditions of the past. Delaware, on the other hand, failed to live up to the possibilities under her early 'permissive' laws.1 Even the organization of the friends of common school education, under the presidency of Judge Willard Hall, showed itself very conservative, and would not advocate the introduction of a state superintendent or the establish- plete.

1 See p. 103.

school was



did not establish a until after the

state system


and even

then the supervision was

left incom

Ohio, Indiana,

and Illinois

to overcome

the opponents

ment of state normal schools. As in most of the Southern states, Delaware did not establish a completely organized state system until after the war. Even then, while a state board and state superintendency were established in 1875, there were no county superintendents, and when county supervision was introduced in 1888, the state superintendency was abolished.

Public Education in the West.-The budding of a were enabled common school system, which had just begun to appear in the new commonwealths of the Northwest before 1840, of public edu- rapidly unfolded into full blossom through the nurture shortly after of this educational springtime. The common school the middle of advocates in Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois were thereby

cation, and

the century

local taxation

and free com

and estab

ership or superintend


fully realized greatly aided in their struggle to overcome the opposition of settlers from the states not committed to pubmon schools, lic education.1 Their efforts to unify the cosmopolitan lished a state peoples of the state in the interest of common schools commission- were greatly stimulated by this awakening, and were favored to some extent by further accessions in the way of emigrants from the home of the public school movement. During the decade just preceding the middle of the century, there was a decided elevation of public sentiment going on. Under the leadership of Samuel Lewis and Samuel Galloway in Ohio, Caleb Mills in Indiana, and Ninian W. Edwards in Illinois, the friends of public education had marshalled themselves for battle. Reports and memorials were constantly presented to the legislatures of these states, and public addresses in behalf of common schools were frequent in most large communities. A group of devoted schoolmen appeared, who were as successful in lobbying for good 1 See pp. 113ff.

legislation as they were with institutes and public lectures. While reactions occasionally happened, like that in Ohio between 1840 and 1845, when the state superintendency was temporarily abolished, public education gradually came to be regarded as something more than merely free education for the poor, and public school funds were no longer granted as a subsidy to private institutions. After a quarter century of 'permissive' laws, local taxation and free common schools were fully realized in all three states early in the fifties. In 1853 Ohio once more obtained a separate state department of education under the care of an elected 'commissioner';1 the year before, Indiana eliminated all option concerning taxation on the part of the counties, and organized universal education; and in the year following, a system of public education with a state superintendent was established by Illinois. The contest, of course, was not ended, as reactionary elements, with selfish, local, and sectarian interests, still remained, but their contentions have never again been more than partially successful. New features of the common schools, such as efficient teachers for the rural districts, county supervision, state normal training, and free higher education in state universities, have gradually rendered the state systems more consistent and complete.

In Michigan, on the other hand, where there was From the be ginning of not such a mixture of population, and a complete sym- statehood pathy with the common school idea appeared, there was Michigan proalmost unhampered progress from the beginning of school fund

1 This method was not changed until the constitutional convention of 1912, when it was arranged that a 'state superintendent' should be appointed by the governor.

vided for a

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