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and a local

tax; and soon
d veloped
'union' anc
high schools

statehood. Under the first constitution (1837), there was provision made for a permanent school fund and for a local tax in every district. There was also provided to fit for the a system of 'branches' of the university, whereby a university, liberal grant was made for an academy in any county came free, and that would furnish suitable buildings and a sum equal state normal to the appropriation from the state. This dissipation

which be

founded a


ity of educa

opment has occurred in the other

have been admitted, and in

of the university funds, however, was gradually stopped, and between 1852 and 1860 'union' and high schools were rapidly developed to supply the means of fitting for the university. This latter institution became virtually free in 1842, and in 1850 a state normal school was founded. In all the other territory acquired or purchased by Similar rapid- the United States in its westward expansion, the educational devel- tional history has been very similar to that in the first states of the Northwest. Progress in common school sentiment has been made pari passu with the settlement of the country. Each state, upon admission, has received its sixteenth section of school land and two townships for a university, and in the states admitted since 1848 the endowment of schools has been increased to two sections, while Texas, which had been an independent republic (1836-1845), stipulated before becoming a state that it should retain sole possession of its public lands, and has set aside for education nearly two and one-half millions of acres. Hence in the first constitution permanent school and university funds have generally been provided, and a regular organization of the schools of the state, with a central authority of some sort, has simultaneously appeared with the entry of new states. In few cases have sectarian interests been able to delay or injure the growth of common schools in any of the

the West the triumph of the common school idea

has been most and consist



later commonwealths, and the interpretation of public education as schools for the children of paupers has never seriously influenced the West. The triumph of the common school idea has been made complete, but it has been rendered more consistent in the West and has there developed original elements of the greatest value.

South and

there were

at first many efforts to es:

tablish sys

tems of pub

Organization of State Systems in the South. Thus through the awakening of common schools that occurred throughout the union from 1835 to 1860 was the old-time country and city district school of the North lifted up to the present system of graded free elementary, secondary, and normal schools, together with city and state universities. But these results were not at first as fully While the awakening realized in the South, because of the approach and was strongly precipitation of the dreadful internecine conflict that felt in the weighed down and finally prostrated the resources of that section of the United States. During the earlier years of the awakening, and in some states up to the very verge of the Civil War, however, great progress lic schools, as in public education was noticeable. The attendance the war apin the common schools, established in several states by educational 'permissive' legislation, had been rapidly growing for a score of years, and there was an increasing body of prominent men desirous of enlarging popular education. During the early forties there were many efforts and suggestions for a system of public schools, and several conventions were held in the interest of such institutions. North Carolina, moreover, established a public school system in 1839, and state, county, and local administrative organization was well provided for and support obtained through the 'literary fund' and local taxation. Tennessee (1838-1843) and Kentucky (1838) made similar


progress was

forced to give way to the


of state and after the war educational

home, and

facilities were

a wreck.

But the war caused the

South to real

ize more fully

versal educa

1870 many of

efforts toward state organizations, which, while less suc◄ cessful, were maintained for some time. As late as 1858 Georgia took a distinct step forward in this direction, while Charleston (1856) and other leading cities of the South greatly strengthened their public school systems. The Southern states generally seem to have been profoundly stirred by the vigorous movement that was going on. Such leaders as Barnard and Mann were greatly esteemed in the South, and their advice was not infrequently sought in various commonwealths. Even in their secession conventions some states, like Georgia, adopted resolutions or constitutional amendments looking to the education of the people, and North Carolina in 1863, with the union army actually at its doors, undertook to grade the schools and provide for the training of teachers. But, in general, as the impending conflict drew near, attention to educational progress was forced to give way to the preservation of state and home, and after the war, which crushed and ravaged nearly every portion of the South, educational facilities had for the most part been totally wrecked.

Nevertheless, in the end the war served as a stimulus to common schools. It brought about a complete overthan ever the turn of the old social and industrial order, and the South need of uni- realized more fully than ever that it could arise from its tion, and by desperate material and educational plight only through the Southern the institution of universal education. As early as 1865, school systems were organized in the border states,— poverty and Maryland, Kentucky, Missouri, and West Virginia, and cles, had be- even during the harsh and unhappy days of 'reconstrucgun a system tion' (1867-1876),1 efforts were made in other states to of public edu1 The presidential plan of reconstruction (1865-1867), which sought to

states, despite their

other obsta


build up systems of free public education.1 The organization of education became more thorough and mandatory than before the war. All children, white and black, were to attend school between six and twenty-one, and the term was to last from four to six months each year. Property and poll taxation were established for the support of the schools. A state superintendent and state board of education, and county commissioners and a county board and trustees in each district, were provided for. Text-book commissions were often established, and free books were granted to poor children. The foundation for a real system was thus laid. This was a tremendous undertaking, and it shows the greatest courage and executive ability upon the part of the South to have brought it to pass. Property had been diminished in valuation to the extent of nearly two billion dollars, and there were two million children to be educated. Moreover, under the reconstruction régime, the tax on property was often not collected, and the appropriations for education remained on paper.2 Indifference and inexperience were aggravated by the fear that 'mixed' schools would be forced upon the white population by a reconstruction legislature or a Congress with enlist the coöperation of the native white citizens, was too quickly supplanted by the congressional plan to have much effect upon education.

1 E. g. Tennessee in 1867, North and South Carolina in 1868, and Virginia and Georgia in 1870.

2 E. W. Knight has shown in his Influence of Reconstruction on Education in the South (New York, 1913) that undue credit has been given the reconstruction régime for interest in popular education. "The legislatures were indeed most liberal in making appropriations for schools; but the appropriations seem not to have been paid fully or even in large part."

In this they

were aided by

the Peabody

Educational Fund, and large sums

have since

uted for similar purposes.

millennial zeal in behalf of universal brotherhood. These and many other obstacles for fully a decade constituted an enormous stumbling-block. Several factors, however, aided and encouraged the South in its efforts. Of these

the most important was the foundation in 1867 of the Peabody Educational Fund of $2,000,000, well characterbeen contrib- ized as "a gift to the suffering South for the good of the Union." George Peabody, the donor, while a native of Massachusetts, had lived for a time in the South, and realized that the nation could not prosper while such an untoward educational situation existed anywhere. Under a board of trustees, composed of the most distinguished men of the nation, and through the direct management of the wisest and most sympathetic agents, this fund performed a magnificent service. By an appeal to the higher sentiment of the communities and states, it awakened and stimulated educational effort by granting the necessary assistance. When it proved insufficient for the great task, the trustees pleaded with Congress for an additional subsidy, and made the whole country aware of the crying needs of education in the South. Mr. Peabody hoped that his example might be followed by others, and such has been the case, for more than ten million dollars have been contributed for similar purposes from several sources. Aid has thus been granted to various grades of public education, institutions to train teachers for the new schools have been established, and both white and colored children are being given opportunities for a thorough public school education.

While the

Despite the tremendous rally during the seventies, struggle was however, the struggle for public education in the South twenty years, was not won for twenty years, but complete systems

not won for

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