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of common schools have now at length been generally the sentiment established. Even the first results of this universal tunity for education were gratifying, especially in the poorer tion have districts, and advanced features have rapidly been since 1890 added. With the cessation of the reconstruction in- plete. fluence and the subsidence of the dread of mixed schools, attendance and appropriations have greatly increased, girls have come to be given equal opportunities with the boys, the education of colored children has been adequately supported, and provision has been made for training and stimulating teachers of both races. Separate state institutions for higher education, cultural and vocational, have been established to furnish a broad education for both whites and negroes. Since 1890 there has been no evidence of any widespread hostility to public education, and the expenditures and intensive improvement of the schools have been constantly progressing. Thus in the Southern states there has been a continual, though somewhat fluctuating, growth of a sentiment for common schools from the time of its initiation by the broadvisioned Jefferson to the universal sentiment of to-day. It evolved through long years of varied success and failure, and broke its chrysalis after the wreck of the Civil War, and gradually attained to its present proportions. Its achievements during the past two decades seem almost unparalleled in history.

And with the

development

in the South,

the American

With its final development in the South during the last decade of the nineteenth century, the distinctly American public school system may be said to have been fully elaborated. The educational ideals and traditions imported from Europe have gradually been modified and adapted system has been fully to the needs of America. Schools have become pub- elaborated,

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lic and free in the modern sense. The control of education has passed from private parties and even quasi-public societies to the state. The schools have likewise come to be supported by the state, and are open to all children alike without the imposition of any financial obligation. This latter step has been taken very slowly, and it was not accomplished in most states until after the Civil War. In secondary education, the academies, which supplanted the 'grammar' schools, first became 'free academies' and made no charge for tuition from local patrons, though remaining close corporations, and then were in time replaced by the true American secondary institution,—the high school. Colleges became largely nonsectarian, even when not nominally so, and state universities were organized in all except a few of the oldest commonwealths. Thus has the idea of common schools and the right to use the public wealth to educate the entire body of children into sound American citizenship been made complete. Although the system is still capable of much improvement, it is expressive of American genius and development. It is simply the American idea of government and society applied to education. It is the educational will of the people expressed through the majority, and the resultant of the highest thinking and aspirations of a great nation made up of the most powerful and progressive elements of all and marks an civilized peoples. This development marks an advanced phase of the phase of the modern sociological tendency in education. While it may at times appear unscientific, illogical, and tendency in disordered, no short cut is possible for this characteristic evolution of American civilization. The process of educating public opinion and of directing public administration is slow and tortuous. Nor is the system to be

advanced

modern so

ciological

education.

wedded to any fixed organization or practice, but it should be allowed to move with the expanding vision of the people. Each state may, therefore, constantly adapt to its own use whatever seems of value in other commonwealths or countries, and under the American plan reap the benefit of the broadest educational experience everywhere.

SUPPLEMENTARY READING

I. SOURCES

Revised constitutions, statutes, and legislative documents, and the reports of Superintendents, Commissioners, and Boards of Education, of the various states, 1835 to the present; and the Annual Reports of the United States Commissioner of Education, 1867 to the present.

II. AUTHORITIES

BLACKMAR, F. W. History of Federal and State Aid to Higher Education in the United States.

BOONE, R. G. Education in the United States. Parts III and IV. History of Education in Indiana.

BOONE, R. G.

BOURNE, W. O.

New York.

BROWN, E. E.

XIV-XX.

History of the Public School Society of the City of
Chapters XII-XV.

The Making of Our Middle Schools. Chapters

BUTLER, N. M. (Editor). Education in the United States. I.
CUBBERLEY, E. P. Changing Conceptions of Education.
CURRY, O. H. Education at the South.

DEXTER, E. G. History of Education in the United States.
Chapters VIII-XII.

HINSDALE, B. A. Horace Mann and the Common School Revival. Chap. XIII.

KNIGHT, E. W. The Influence of Reconstruction on Education in

the South.

MARTIN, G. H. Evolution of the Massachusetts Public School System. Lectures V and VI.

MAYO, A. D. Report of the United States Commissioner of Education. 1893-94, XVII; 1898-99, VIII; 1899-1900, VII; 1900-01, X; 1903, VIII and IX; 1904, XVI.

MERRIWETHER, C. History of Higher Education in South Caro

lina.

PALMER, A. E.

PRATT, D. J.
York.

RANDALL, S. S.

The New York Public School.

Annals of Public Education in the State of New

History of the Common School System of the State

of New York. Third and Fourth Periods.

SMITH, C. L. History of Education in North Carolina.

SMITH, W. L.

STEINER, B. C.

STEINER, B. C.

Historical Sketch of Education in Michigan.
History of Education in Connecticut.

History of Education in Maryland.

STOCKWELL, T. B. History of Public Education in Rhode Island. THWING, C. F. Education in the United States since the Civil War. WICKERSHAM, J. P. History of Education in Pennsylvania. Chaps. XVII-XXVIII.

CHAPTER IX

THE DEVELOPMENT OF MODERN SCHOOL SYSTEMS

During the and a half the leading pow

past century

ers of Europe

systems of

somewhat

and that of

may afford

gestions,
when under-
stood in their

historical

National Systems of Education in Europe and Canada.-In previous chapters (IV, VI, VIII,) we have witnessed the gradual evolution in America of state systems of universal education out of the unorganized and rather have develaristocratic arrangement of schools that had first been oped state transplanted from Europe in the seventeenth century. education But development of a centralized organization of public different from schools has not been confined to the United States. Dur- each other ing the past century and a half, the leading powers of the United Europe, especially Germany, France, and England, and States, which the more recently federated Dominion of Canada, have mutual suglikewise organized state systems of education similar in some respects to those of the American union. All of these countries have now established universal elementary perspective. education free to all, although as yet in few instances are secondary schools also gratuitous. France alone has completely secularized its system, but the public schools of the other nations, while still including religious instruction, have been emancipated from ecclesiastical control, and are responsible to the civil authorities. In all of them school attendance is compulsory. As we have already noticed,1 accounts of this development of national systems of education by the European states have proved a great source of illumination and inspiration for America. 1Pp. 168 and 178ff.

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