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vance was evident in secondary education.

and a corre- scholarly philosopher, Von Humboldt, and his successor, sponding adVon Schuckman, national education was made a reality Schools were held to exist for the state, to train religious and patriotic citizens, and much progress took place in the education of the masses. Great improvements were made in method and content, and a new spirit was introduced into the training of elementary teachers. A corresponding advance was evident in secondary education. In order to teach in the gymnasiums, a strict examination was instituted, and the work was given professional standing by withdrawing the privilege from ministerial candidates while waiting for a church position (1810). The 'leaving examination' for those graduating from the gymnasiums, which had been attempted by Zedlitz nearly a quarter of a century before (1788), was likewise revived, and all classical schools were forced to come to a uniform standard of attainment (1812). A commissioner was appointed to revise the course of study, and a comprehensive Lehrplan was shortly published (1816), which pleased the new humanists by its emphasis upon Greek, and the realists and formal disciplinarians by the increased amount of mathematics. These reforms could not be effective at once, especially as competent teachers were lacking, but pedagogical seminaries, to train secondary instructors, were eventually instituted at the universities (1825), a 'year of trial' was demanded of all teachers (1826), and new requirements, including the main subjects taught in the secondary schools, together with philosophy, pedagogy, and theology, were introduced into the examination of gymnasial teachers (1831). A gymnasium leaving certificate also came to be required of candidates for the civil service, and for eligibility to

examination for admission to the learned professions (1834).

Later, the

Bureau of

dependent de



lished over

further or

the state sys

orated by

several sub

sequent acts.

The External Organization of the Prussian System. Meanwhile, the Bureau of Education was erected Education beinto a separate department (1817).1 Next the state came an inwas divided into educational provinces, and a Schul- partment collegium, or administrative board, with considerable (1817); independence, but subject to the minister, was es- was estabtablished over each province (1825). This organiza- each province tion of the state system was further elaborated by the (1825), and a Prussian constitution of 1850 and by many educational ganization of acts2 and ministerial decrees that have since become effective. The provinces are now divided into 'governments,' each of which has a 'school commission' over it, and every government is divided into 'districts,' whose chief officer is a 'school inspector.' Under the district inspector are local inspectors, and each separate school also has a local board, to take charge of repairs, supplies, and other external matters. The supreme management of the schools has thus been gradually coming into the hands of the state for nearly two centuries. The decrees of 1717 and 1763, the establishment of the Oberschulcollegium in 1787, the General Code promulgated in 1794, the foundation of a Bureau of Education in 1807 and of a separate department in 1817, and the organization of educational provinces in 1825, are the milestones that mark the way to state control. But, while the influence of the church

1 Ministerium für den Cultus und für Unterricht, but this title was soon expanded to Ministerium der geistlichen, Unterrichts—, und Medizinal— Angelegenheiten. In 1911 the division of public health was separated from this ministry, but public worship still forms one of its three departments.

2 Especially the elementary school law of 1906.


fluence of the


Despite this has been constantly diminishing, it is still felt to some of state con- extent. Many of the board members are ministers or trol, the in- priests and the inspectors come mostly from the clergy. church is still Moreover, religious instruction forms part of the course felt in educa- in every school, although it is given at such an hour that any pupil may withdraw if the teaching is contrary to the faith in which he has been reared. The secondary schools are largely interdenominational, but in elementary education there are separate schools for Catholics and Protestants, alike supported by the state.


In Germany

the secondary


and the realschools par

allels the


schools rather

the secondary

The Volksschulen and the Mittelschulen. Prussia, work of the like most of the principal states of Europe, as a result of their educational history,1 has its elementary and secondary schools quite separate and distinct. The universities course in the continue the work of the gymnasiums and real-schools, but these two latter institutions parallel the work of the than supple- people's schools rather than supplement it. The course ments it; and of the secondary school ordinarily occupies the pupil from nine to eighteen years of age, while that of the eleby the chil- mentary school carries him from six to fourteen, and after the first three years it is practically impossible to transfer from the elementary to the secondary system. A pupil cannot enter a gymnasium or real-school after completing the people's school, and the only further training he can obtain is that of a commercial, industrial, or 'continuation school,' 2 which is not part of the system


are attended

dren of the upper classes

and the ele mentary by those of the lower.

1 See p. 315.

2 These Fortbildungsschulen are sometimes held in the evening and even in a few instances on Sunday, but they are mostly conducted during the week in the daytime. They are not intended to review work previously done, but to treat some subjects already covered from the point of view of application to future vocational needs, and also to consider new subjects that serve the same purpose.

proper. The people's schools are gratuitous and are attended mostly by the children of the lower classes, while the gymnasiums charge a substantial tuition fee and are patronized by the professional classes and aristocracy. Hence the line between elementary and secondary education in Prussia is longitudinal and not latitudinal, as it is in the United States; the distinction is one of wealth and social status rather than of educational grade and advancement. There are also some Mittelschu- There are also some 'middle len (middle schools') for the middle classes of people, schools' for who cannot send their children to the secondary schools, the middle and yet can afford some exclusiveness. They have one more class than the people's schools, include a foreign language during the last three years, and require teachers with a better training.

classes of real

schools were recognized,

and out of

these arose in

1882 the real

gymnasia and the higher


The Gymnasien and Other Secondary Schools. In 1859 two The main types of secondary schools in Prussia are the Gymnasien, with the classic languages as the main feature of their course, and the Realschulen, characterized by larger amounts of the modern languages, mathematics, and the natural sciences. For more than a century after the first real-school was opened in Berlin by Hecker (1747), this type of institution had only six years in its course, and was considered inferior to the gymnasium. The practical needs of the people were not regarded in secondary education, but only the ideal training of the ideal citizen. By the ministerial decree of 1859, however, two classes of real-schools were recognized. Those of the first class had a course of nine years, and included Latin, but not Greek. They were given full standing as secondary schools, and graduates were granted admission to the universities, except for the study of the

ology, medicine, or law. The course of the second class of these institutions contained no Latin, and they were dependent upon the good-will of the communities in which the real-schools were located. They were recognized as secondary schools only when their course was up to the official standard. In 1882 the compromise character of the course of the first class of institutions led to their being designated as Realgymnasien, while the second class in some instances had their work extended to nine years and became known as Oberrealschulen. Their graduates were allowed the privilege of studying at the universities in mathematics and the natural sciences. In rural and other districts, however, where a complete course cannot be maintained, there are often gymnasium,' secondary institutions that do not carry the student as well as by more than six years, and these are known, according

A six-year
course is

sometimes of
fered by a

sium' or a

the real


In order that the determi

nation of a boy's career may be deferred, new secondary institutions

to the curriculum, as Progymnasien, Realprogymnasien, and Realschulen. The first two classes are far less common than institutions with the longer course of the same character, but the Realschulen are nearly twice as numerous as the Oberrealschulen.

Since these three types of secondary institutions are so distinct from each other, it is evident that a parent is forced to decide the future career of his boy at nine years, long before his special ability can be known. If he once enters a real-school, he can never transfer to a known as 're- gymnasium, because the Latin begins in the latter course at once, nor can he enter the gymnasium from the realrapidly devel- gymnasium after twelve, since he has had no Greek. To overcome this objection, during the past quarter of a century efforts have been made to delay the irrevocable decision by grouping all three courses as one


have been


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