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institution and making them identical as long as possible. In secondary schools of this new sort, French is usually the only foreign language taught for the first three years. Then the course divides, and one section takes up Latin and the other English. After two years more a further bifurcation takes place in the Latin section, and one group begins with the Greek, while the other studies English. These institutions are known as Reformschulen and the plan was first introduced at Frankfort in 1892. The 'reform schools' are now growing rapidly, and there is evident an increasing tendency to postpone years of prep the choice of courses as long as possible. The three aration for years of training preliminary to admission to a secondary ary school school of any type may be obtained through the people's may be obor the middle schools. But there has also grown up, as people's an attachment of the secondary schools, a Vorschule schools or in ('preparatory school'), to perform this function for 'preparatory pupils of the more exclusive classes.

The three

any second

tained in the

a regular

school'

ties are now

tions and part

of the

na

tional system, although they

The Universities. Like the other stages of educa- The universition, the universities are now emancipated from ecclesias- considered tical control, and may be regarded as part of the national state institusystem of education. The university is now coördinate and under the same authority with the church, for both are legally state institutions. Universities can, therefore, are controlled be established only by the state or with the approval and decrees of the state. In general, however, they are not controlled rather than by legislation, but through charters and special decrees of the minister of education. As their income from endowments and fees is very small, they are for the most

1 Several years before this, a combination of the Realgymnasium and the Realschule was made by Dr. Schlee at Altona, but this plan was tentative and by special permission, and has spread to only a few schools.

by charters

by legislation

While a national system began in

a century

part supported by the state. They are managed internally by the rector and senate. The rector is annually chosen from their own number by the full professors, with the approval of the minister, and the senate is a committee from the various faculties. The professors are regarded as civil servants with definite privileges, and they are appointed by the minister, although the suggestions of the faculty concerned are usually respected. The civic status of the universities is further shown in their being recognized by representation in the Diet or upper house of the legislature.

Educational Institutions in France before the Revolution. The development of a centralized system of France almost education in France began almost a century later than in later than in Germany. During the eighteenth and the early nineGermany, the earlier history teenth century the different monarchic powers were not of the second- at all favorable to training the masses, and popular higher insti- education was badly neglected. It required several not radically revolutions in government and the establishment of a

ary and

tutions was

different.

permanent republic, to break the old traditions completely, and to make it evident that universal suffrage should be accompanied by universal education. The earlier educational history of France, however, was not radically different from that of Germany and the rest of western Europe. Thanks to the Renaissance and the efforts of such men as Budæus, Corderius, and Ramus, the anæmic scholasticism and narrow theological dogmatism in the higher institutions were replaced in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries by humanism and the study of the classic authors. A chair of Greek was established at the University of Paris (1458), and the College of France (1530) was founded by Francis I as a

protest and a means of permitting freedom in thought.1 The Jesuit colleges, with their humanistic courses, began to open (1540), and before the close of the century Henry IV undertook a reform of the university. Further broadening of higher and secondary education took place in the seventeenth century through the organization of the Oratorian and Port Royalist courses and the introduction of realism.2 Toward the close of this century also Rollin wrought his reformation of the university. After the middle of the eighteenth century the revolutionary spirit began to manifest itself. The Emile presented its successful protest against the artificial education of the times (1762); the Jesuits were suppressed in France (1764); and, at the request of the Parliament of Paris, a general plan for a reorganization and centralization of education was presented by Rolland (1768).

4

close of the

century a

Educational Development since the French Revolution. Up to this time little attention had been given to elementary education, except through a small number of parochial schools and the institutions established by Toward the the Institute of Christian Brethren in the seventeenth eighteenth century. But this plan of Rolland, while not adopted, suggested that relatively less should be expended for secondary education, and recommended universal education and an adequate number of training schools for posed. teachers. The Constitutional Convention in 1793 was more destructive in its reforms, and abolished all the old educational organization, including the University of Paris

1 See Graves, History of Education during the Transition, pp. 141ff. Op. cit., pp. 222ff. and 243ff.

Op. cit., p. 228.

4Op. cit., pp. 230ff.

plans for pop

ular education

were pro

In Napoleon's time

communal

the means of

and the 'colleges' or secondary schools. Then followed the confusion of the revolutionary legislation. A large number of short-lived proposals and enactments were passed and repealed, but during this period of protest there were formulated great principles of educational administration and practice that were destined later to be embodied in more practical form and to rehabilitate French education upon a grander and more national scale. Each of the three revolutionary assemblies had its own scheme of popular education, put forward by Talleyrand, Condorcet, and Daunou respectively, but the first two plans never got beyond the paper stage, and the last (1795) was too loosely drawn to be carried out. It did, however, introduce the influential conception of 'central schools,' which were the only type of secondary education during the Revolution. The year before (1794) a system of department normal schools, with a great central normal at Paris, was also proposed but never really consummated.1

After the Revolution, during the consulate of Napoleon the lycées and (1802-1804), the 'central schools' were replaced by the modern lycées, and the communal 'colleges' were recogcolleges were recognized as nized as secondary schools. When he had become emsecondary ed- peror, Napoleon went further with his educational reorucation, and, ganization, and ordered all the lycées, secondary colleges, the faculties and faculties of higher education to be united in a single corporation, dependent upon the state and known as the united in the University of France' (1808). This decree of centralization divided the country into twenty-seven administrative districts, called 'academies,' each of which was

together with

of higher edu

cation, were

'University of France.'

1 The school at Paris, however, was founded and continued through the spring months of 1795.

zation did not

cation, and it

Louis Phil

include elementary eduremained for ippe, through Guizot, to remary school in each comstart higher schools in the larger cen

quire a pri

to establish university faculties of letters and science near the principal lycées. For want of adequate support, these faculties were to borrow part of their instructional corps from the local lycées, and their chief function was to be the conferring of the degrees of bachelor, master (license), and doctor. This organization, however, did This organinot include elementary education, and little attempt was made to provide for schools of this grade before the reign of Louis Philippe. Upon the advice of his great minister of education, Guizot, that monarch organized primary education, requiring a school for each commune, or at least for a group of two or three communes, and starting higher primary schools in the department capitals and in communes of over six thousand inhabitants (1833). He also instituted inspectors of primary schools, and established department normal schools under the more effective control of the state authorities. The plan for higher establish deprimary schools was never fully realized, and the institu- partment nortions of this sort that had been established disappeared during the second empire. The reactionary law of Falloux (1850) did not even mention these schools, but encouraged the development of denominational schools, and permitted teachers with scant qualifications to teach without further authorization than a bishop's 'letter of obedience.'

mune, to

primary

ters, and to

mal schools,

but much of this progress

was lost un

der the re

actionary law of 1850.

permanent

popular edu

The Primary School System.-Guizot, however, had However, a given a permanent impulse to popular education, and impulse to during the third republic foundations for a national sys-Po had tem of education have rapidly been laid. Schools have been given, been brought into the smallest villages, new and conven- the third reient buildings have been erected, and elementary education has been made free to all (1881) and compulsory be

and during

public ele

mentary edu

cation has

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