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from the first

state, repre

the ecclesias


days. In the beginning education was cared for in the In the Canadian provinces four provinces separately, and when the Dominion of there have Canada was finally formed (1867), the federal govern- been develment left to each province the administration of public oped two education within its borders. The same autonomy was cational contypes of eduextended to the provinces that have since been admitted trol,-the to the federation. Two types of educational control, sented by state and ecclesiastical, have been developing from the Ontario, and first. The former method is best illustrated by the tical, developed by Quesystem of public schools, with grants of public funds, that has been organized in Ontario; and the latter by the public supervision of parochial schools that has been established in Quebec. Ontario was settled mostly by English and Scotch emigrants, many of whom had, as 'union loyalists,' come from the United States after the Declaration of Independence, and practically all the colonists had brought with them the concept of public control of education. The French settlers of Quebec, on the other hand, naturally followed their traditions of parish schools.

school system

The Public School System of Ontario.-The system of schools in Ontario began before the middle of the nineteenth century. As early as 1841 the provincial parliament provided for the establishment of township 'common schools' and for district 'grammar schools' after the English type of secondary education. Two The common years later the college at York, now relocated and known of Ontario as the 'University of Toronto,' opened its doors. Then, in 1846, through Egerton Ryerson, the Common Schools in 1846, and Act for Ontario was passed. This was formulated after a careful study of the systems of Massachusetts, New he was in York, and the European states, and it included many was accom

was started by Ryerson

during the thirty years

office much

plished for universal education and centraliza


Since then

the growth of

has been even

excellent elements from various systems and a number of valuable original features. Through tenure of office during thirty years, Dr. Ryerson was able to develop and fix this system, and the Ontario law of 1871, after the Dominion had been formed, included free tuition, compulsory attendance, county inspection, uniform examinations, and all the other features for which he had contended.

Since 1876 an even greater centralization of the procentralization vincial system has been effected through substituting more marked for the chief superintendent a 'minister of education' with much larger powers, and bringing all stages of of a ministry public education, the elementary, secondary, and of education higher schools, into much closer relationship. The min

through the development

with the

largest powers.

ister has many assistants and advisors, including since 1906 an Advisory Council of Education, which is made up of representatives from the universities and public schools, the inspectional corps, and local trustees. He initiates and directs all school legislation, decides complaints and disputes, sets examinations for the high, elementary, model, and normal schools, prescribes the courses of study, chooses the text-books, and appoints the inspectors. His is an office of great power and digThe system is also adminis- nity. The system is also administered by subordinate authorities elected in the localities, whose duties are clearly defined by law. The province is for educational purposes divided into counties, which are in turn divided into townships, and subdivided into sections and incorand the cen- porated cities, towns, and villages. The central and tral and local local administrations are wisely balanced, and while the one determines scholastic standards through its professional requirements, the other establishes schools, ap

tered by subordinate authorities

elected in the counties, townships,

and sections;

administrations are

wisely balanced.

even more

teachers is



schools' for


points teachers, and regulates expenditures under the general control of the minister. The system of elemen- The system is tary schools, high schools, collegiate institutes, and unified than universities, is fully unified, and the work of each stage in the United States; the fits into the others even more exactly than in the 'ladder' training of system of the United States. The training of teachers cared for by is cared for through the departments of Education in institutions of the universities, the eight provincial normal schools, grades; and and a model school in each county. The teachers for there is a complete system secondary institutions are prepared at the universities, of inspectors. the normal schools grant a life certificate to teach in the elementary schools, while the model schools afford fourteen weeks of training for country teachers. The buildings, equipment, courses, and instruction of the high, elementary, and model schools are each reported upon by inspectors of assured scholarship and experience. Since 1863 permission has been granted to establish when needed. 'separate schools' for any peculiar creed or race, whereever there are five families requesting it. This opportunity to have schools of their own faith has not been embraced by any save the Roman Catholics. Any one paying toward the support of a 'separate school' is exempt from taxation for the regular public schools. Special provincial inspectors report upon these schools, but in the same way as for the public schools. An effort has frequently been made to get rid of this provision by instituting purely secular schools throughout the province, but it has never been successful, and even in the public schools nonsectarian religious exercises are still conducted.

Systems of Education in Other Provinces of Canada.The Ontario system may be considered typical of the

any race creed may be


system is

cept Quebec,

The Ontario educational administration in the various provinces of typical of all Canada, except Quebec. While each province has a provinces, ex- history and peculiarities of its own, many of the features in them all have been taken from the Ontario model. Every one has sought uniformity of school provision and educational standards through government control, although none of them grant their central official as much power as Ontario. In Nova Scotia, Manitoba, and British Columbia the 'executive council' constitutes the educational authority of the province, and the chief officer, known as 'superintendent,' is appointed by the lieutenant governor. New Brunswick vests the authority in a Board of Education, composed of the lieutenant governor, the members of the executive council, the president of the provincial university, and the superintendent, who is secretary and chief executive. Alberta and Saskatchewan permit 'separate schools,' and they existed in Manitoba until 1890, when, after a bitter contest, they were abolished.

central Coun

But the ecclesiastical type of control in Quebec is very different from that of the other provinces. The educational system originated there in the schools of the parishes and of the teaching orders, like the Jesuits and which has a Christian Brethren, and in 1845 the parish was by law cil of Public made the unit of school administration. But seven years later government inspectors were established, and in 1859 a central organization was completed with a Council of Public Instruction. This authority is composed of two each of which divisions, a Roman Catholic and a Protestant, which sit makes regulations for the separately and administer the schools of their respective schools of its creeds. Each division makes regulations for the in


with two divisions,-a

Catholic and a Protestant,

own faith.

struction and texts of its own schools, and appoints in

spectors of its own faith. The provincial superintendent of schools, appointed by the lieutenant governor, is ex officio chairman of both divisions, but he can vote only with the division to which he belongs by religion. The proceeds from the general public school fund, a special The proceeds of the public tax, or any educational legacies are divided in propor- fund, special tion to the Catholic and Protestant inhabitants, but the regular school rate of one-fifth cent on a dollar may be assigned to whichever of the two school systems the taxpayer wishes. The local unit in education is the municipality, which may be divided into districts, and the trustees in each district have full control of the schools there, subject to the requirements of the Council.

taxation, and legacies are divided pro

the two faiths, but the school assigned to whichever of

rata between

rate may be

the two sys

tems the tax

side the

Canada alone

and second

France has

Comparison of Modern School Systems. Thus, dur- payer wishes. ing the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, systems of education have been centralized in the civil governments of the leading European nations and of Canada. With Although, outthe exception of the Canadian provinces, however, no United States, one of these states has yet altogether welded its primary has welded and secondary systems.1 Moreover, while France alone its primary has been completely centralized and rendered purely ary systems, secular, all the others have been liberated from ecclesi- and only astical control and are under civic organization and centralized management. This development represents a very different situation from the conditions in the administration of schools that furnished America with its first educational traditions, but the evolution of state control in the United States took place quite independently of that in Europe. In fact, until the early part of the nineteenth century, so little was known in America concerning European education that adaptations to the systems United States

1 See pp. 277, 297, and 302.

and secular

ized its
schools, all

these states
have been
from ecclesi-

astical conunder civic

trol and are

management. While the

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