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to more than fifty. Most visitors were greatly pleased with the school, especially on account of the interested and alert appearance of the pupils. Kant had such high expectations of its results as to declare in 1777 that it meant "not a slow reform, but a quick revolution," and felt that "by the plan of organization it must of itself throw off all the faults which belong to its beginning." He afterward admitted that he had been too optimistic, but he still felt that the experiment had been well worth while, and had paved the way for better things. Although it may not have served well for older pupils, it was certainly excellent in its stimulus to children under ten or twelve, who too often are naturally averse to books, and can be captured only by such appeals to the physical activities, the senses, and other primary interests.



closed, but

sprang up

cluding the

of Salzmann

at Schnepfenthal and those

Basedow, however, proved temperamentally unfit to The Philandirect the institution. He soon left, and began to teach was privately in Dessau and write educational works along similar inthe lines he had started. Joachim Heinrich Campe stitutions (1746-1818), who first superseded him, withdrew within throughout a year to found a similar school at Hamburg. Institu- Germany, intions of the same type sprang up elsewhere, and some famous school of them had a large influence upon education. The most striking and enduring of these schools was that established in 1784 by Christian Gotthilf Salzmann (1744-1811) at Schnepfenthal under the patronage of the royal family of Saxe-Gotha. The natural surroundingsmountains, valleys, lakes-were most favorable for the purpose of the institution, and much attention was given to nature study, 'lessons on things,' organized excursions, gardening, agricultural work, and care of domestic

of Rochow at

Rechahn and


And, while the philanthropinic movement

became a fad, and came into the hands of mountebanks, it introduced

animals. Manual training, gymnastics, sports, informal moral and religious culture, and other features that anticipated later developments in education also formed part of the course. During the decade before the establishment of Salzmann's school, institutions embodying many of Basedow's ideas were opened at Rechahn and his other Brandenburg estates by Baron Eberhard von Rochow (1734-1805). His schools were simply intended to improve the peasantry in their methods of farming and living, but, when this step toward universal education proved extraordinarily successful, Rochow advocated the adoption of a complete national system of schools on a nonsectarian basis.

In 1793 the Philanthropinum at Dessau was closed permanently. Its teachers were scattered through Europe, and gave a great impulse to the new education. An unfortunate result of this popularity was that the Philanthropinum became a fad, and schools with this name were opened everywhere in Germany by educational mountebanks. These teachers prostituted the cerning meth- system to their own ends, degraded the profession into ods and in- a mere trade, and became the subject of much satire

many new ideas con

dustrial training.

and ridicule. Nevertheless, the philanthropinic movement seems not to have been without good results, especially when we consider the educational conditions and the pedagogy of the times. It introduced many new ideas concerning methods and industrial training into all parts of France and Switzerland, as well as Germany, and these were carefully worked out by such reformers as Pestalozzi, Froebel, and Herbart. In this way there were embodied in education the first positive results of the destructive 'naturalism' of Rousseau, and

there appeared further progress in the social, scientific, and psychological movements of modern education. The significance of the naturalistic movement will be patent when we come to the work of the later reformers, but we must now turn for a time to a different phase of educational development.



BASEDOW, J. B. Elementarwerk and Methodenbuch.

CAMPE, J. H. Robinson der Jüngere and Theorophon.

ROUSSEAU, J. J. Confessions, Letters, and Reveries; Discourse on
the Sciences and Arts and Discourse on Inequality; The New
Heloise, Social Contract, and Emile.
SALZMANN, C. G. Conrad Kiefer.


BARNARD, H. American Journal of Education. Vol. V, pp. 459520; XX, 349-350; and XXVII, 497–508.

BARNARD, H. German Teachers and Educators. Pp. 459-520.
BOYD, W. The Educational Theory of Jean Jacques Rousseau.
BROUGHAM, H. Rousseau (Lives of Men of Letters).

BROWNING, O. An Introduction to the History of Educational
Theories. Chap. IX. ·

BRUNETIÈRE, F. Manual of the History of French Literature. (Translated by Derechif.) Pp. 333-414.

CAIRD, C. Literature and Philosophy. Vol. I, pp. 105-146. COMPAYRÉ, G. History of Pedagogy. (Translated by Payne.) Chap. XIII.

COMPAYRÉ, G. Jean Jacques Rousseau and Education from Nature. (Translated by Jago.)

DAVIDSON, T. Rousseau and Education according to Nature.

FRANCKE, K. Social Forces in German Literature. Chaps. VII

GARBOVICIANU, P. Die Didaktik Basedows in Vergleiche zur Didaktik des Comenius.

GIRALDIN, ST. M. J. J. Rousseau, sa vie et ses ouvrages.

GÖRING, H. Ausgewählte Schriften mit Basedows Biographie. GRAVES, F. P. Great Educators of Three Centuries. Chaps. VII and VIII.




Rousseau and Naturalism in Life and Thought. Rousseau and his Emile.

Basedow: His Educational Work and Principles.

LINCOLN, C. H. Rousseau and the French Revolution (Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, X, pp. 54-72).

MACDONALD, F. Studies in the France of Voltaire and Rousseau. Chaps. II and VII.

MONROE, P. Textbook in the History of Education. Chap. X. MORIN, S. H. Life and Character of Rousseau (Littell's Living Age, XXXVIII, pp. 259-264).

MORLEY, J. Rousseau.

MUNROE, J. P. The Educational Ideal. Chap. VII.

PARKER, S. C. The History of Modern Elementary Education.
Chaps. VIII-X.

PAYNE, J. Lectures on the History of Education. Pp. 91–96.
PINLOCHE, J. A. Basedow et le Philanthropinisme.

QUICK, R. H. Educational Reformers. Chaps. XIV and XV.
SCHLOSSER, F. C. History of the Eighteenth Century. Vols. I and

TEXTE, J. Jean Jacques Rousseau and the Cosmopolitan Spirit in Literature. (Translated by Matthews.) Bk. I.

WEIR, S. The Key to Rousseau's Emile (Educational Review, V, pp. 278-290).



eenth cen

tury there were recon

structive as

forces in

society and education.


English Social and Educational Conditions in the In the eightEighteenth Century. The eighteenth century cannot be regarded altogether as a period of revolution and destruction. While such a characterization describes well as some of the prevailing tendencies, there were also social structive and educational forces that looked to evolution and reform rather than to a complete disintegration of society and a return to animal or to primitive living. There was still some attempt to build upon the past, and, while modifying traditions and conditions, to alleviate and improve, and not entirely ignore or reject society as it existed. Moreover, even in Rousseau, the arch-destroyer of traditions, we found many evidences of a reconstruction along higher lines, and beginnings of the development of social, psychological, and scientific movements in modern education. And such a positive movement was decidedly obvious in Basedow, Salzmann, and other philanthropinists. But reforms were even more apparent in England. In the land of the Briton, progress is proverbially gradual, and sweeping victories and Waterloo defeats in affairs of society and education are alike unwonted. The French tendency to cut short the social and educational process and to substitute revolution for evolution is out of accord with the spirit across the English Channel. Hence in England educa

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