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Recent Attempts at a Reconstruction of Educational Practice. Because of the remarkable development of science and invention, the nineteenth century has often been referred to as the 'wonderful' century. Such a term affords no better description of material achievement than of the remarkable progress that has taken place in education. The last chapter showed how the growth of the sciences during this period has been reflected in the educational institutions of all countries; and previous chapters have indicated the extent to which, through various movements, education has been broadened and improved in conception and advancement. At the pres- There has been a continuous gain in the centralizaent day some tion and democratization of schools, in the content of the course of study, in the methods of teaching and the construction professional training of teachers, and in the liberality with which education has been established and maintained. But momentous as have been these changes and expansion of view, the near future of education will probably witness a much greater development in vision and concrete achievements. At the present time there are constant efforts at a modification and a reconstruction of education in the interest of a better adjustment of the individual to his social environment and of greatly improved conditions in society itself. Educational

remarkable movements

toward a re

of education are going on.

experimentation and discussion are being conducted along a great variety of lines, and are of a richer and more scientific nature than ever before. It is, of course, impossible to describe all of these movements even in the briefest manner, and it is difficult to select for consideration those most characteristic and promising. Yet some of the present day tendencies that appear most significant must at this point engage our passing attention.

the want of

The Growth of Industrial Training.-The movement that is perhaps most emphasized to-day is the introduction of vocational training into the curriculum of education. There is now an especial need for this type of training in industrial lines. Since the industrial revolution and the development of the factory system, the master no longer works by the side of his apprentice and instructs him, and the ambition of the youth can no longer With the be spurred by the hope that he may himself some day of the factory development become a master. His experience is no longer broad, system, and but is generally confined to some single process, and only high-grade a few of the operatives require anything more than low- skill, it has grade skill, when productive efficiency becomes the main sary for the goal of the system. Nor, as a rule, will the employer sider indusundertake any systematic education of his workmen, trial training since the present mobility of labor permits of no guarantee that he will reap the benefit of such efforts, and the modern industrial plant is poorly adapted to supplying the necessary theoretical training for experts. Hence an outside agency, the school, has been called upon to assist in the solution of these new industrial problems.

Industrial Schools in Germany.—To meet the demand for industrial education, all the principal states of

become neces

school to con

Europe have maintained training of this sort for at least half a century, and the United States has during the past decade been making rapid strides in the same direction. The especial plans of organization and instruction that have been evolved in each case seem to depend upon the temperament of the people and upon the institutions and industrial conditions of the country or locality concerned. In Germany, where this training has had the longest history and is probably the most effective, the work has been carried on through the Fortbildungsschulen ('continuation schools').1 Institutions of this sort were first established by Würtemberg in the states of 1695, to supplement the meager elementary education, Germany have generally and by the earliest years of the nineteenth century a made attend- number of other German states had introduced them. 'continuation The 'industrial law' of the North German Confederation schools' com

Since the
Prussian war

ance at the

pulsory for all apprentices until eighteen.

At first the course con

in 1869 permitted the localities to make attendance at the continuation schools compulsory for all apprentices up to the age of eighteen, and required employers to allow them to attend. And after the Franco-Prussian war, when a desire to enter into industrial competition with the world arose, most of the other states and localities began to follow the example, and this legislation eventually became the basis for an imperial law (1891, 1900). The course in the continuation schools at first consisted largely of review work, but the rapid spread with the in- of elementary schools soon enabled them to devote all the time to technical education. Through the establishment of a large number of schools of various sorts, training is afforded not only for the rank and file of workmen in the different trades, but for the higher grades of

sisted largely

of review work, but,

crease of ele

mentary schools, all

the time was devoted to

technical education, and

1 See p. 288, footnote.

now afforded

workers, as

workers, such as foremen, superintendents, and technical training is office clerks. Similarly, girls are trained in a wide variety for higher of vocations, and in housekeeping and motherhood. grades of Many of these schools, especially in the South German well as for the states, have added laboratories and workshops, and the rank and file. training has proved so valuable that many of the pupils return voluntarily after the period of compulsory attendance.

many tends

and practical

North Germany gen

erally con

fines its

During the last twenty-five years there have also been developed continuation schools for general education, rather than for special industrial training, known as Gewerbeschulen ('trade schools') or Handwerkschulen ('artisan schools'). These institutions furnish theoretical courses in chemistry, physics, mathematics, South Gerbook-keeping, drawing, geography, nature study, his- to combine tory, and law. In South Germany there is a tendency theoretical to combine theoretical and practical work, and to develop work, and schools adapted to the particular industries of the various localities, but North German States generally confine the courses to theoretical training, and leave the practical courses to side to the care of the employers or associations. The theoretical system of industrial education in Munich, organized The Munich by Dr. Kerschensteiner, has been especially developed and has attracted much attention. It includes an extra class in the elementary schools with the chief stress upon manual work, to bridge the gap between school life and the elemenemployment and serve as a preparation for the indus- to serve as a trial classes of the continuation schools. The instruc- preparation tors for the industrial schools of Germany are supplied trial classes of through special training schools, either by giving elementary teachers short industrial courses and making them acquainted with the working of the factory, or by


system, organized by Kerschensteiner, has an

extra class in

tary schools

for the indus

the continua

tion schools.


and Austria,

rse appren

ticeship, but France has found this

feature un

and has un

dertaken to furnish the entire indus

through con


taking master workmen from the factory, and giving them short courses in methods of teaching.

Industrial Education in France.-In Germany these industrial continuation schools are not intended to be a substitute for apprenticeship, but furnish parallel instruction throughout this period. Switzerland and Ausike Germany, tria also use both these features in industrial training, but the one especially emphasizes the apprenticeship and the other the continuation school. Because of unsatisfactory conditions in apprenticeship, France even goes so far as to satisfactory, attempt to eliminate it altogether. More than any other country in Europe, it has made efforts to furnish the entire industrial training through continuation schools artrial training ticulating with the elementary system. The pupils are tinuation admitted at thirteen, and obtain practice in the school workshops for three years. Iron-work is taught to all the boys, but the other courses vary with local needs. There are also Girls learn to make dresses, corsets, millinery, artificial flowers, and other industrial products. A number of these continuation schools have added normal departments, and there is a normal school for industrial training at Paris. There are also throughout the country a number of national schools of arts and trades that are based upon the same principles as these lower industrial classes under schools, and furnish a training for foremen, superintendents, and managers. There are also many evening classes for industrial training under voluntary auspices, but as a whole continuation education has not been nearly as well developed in France as in Germany.

a number of

national schools of arts and

trades, which

furnish train

ing for man

agers and foremen, and evening industrial

voluntary auspices.

Types of English Industrial Training.-In England, despite the rapid industrial development, little attempt was made before the middle of the nineteenth century to im

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