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middle of the

several at

tempts were

made in Eng

land to improve vocathrough in

tional skill


dustrial edu

prove the vocational skill of workmen. In 1851 grants After the were made to evening industrial schools and classes, and nineteenth two years later a Department of Art and Science 1 century established, to encourage instruction in drawing and science and administer the grants. Schools of science were organized in 1872, and shared in the departmental grants. These institutions had at first both day and evening sessions, but after a generation became in many cases regular secondary day schools. There also arose many private organizations, held mainly in the evenings, to teach "such branches of science and the fine arts as benefit commerce and industries." Among these was the City and Guilds of London Institute, which registers, inspects, and examines classes in technology and manual training. At present England has three types of industrial educa- There are at tion, each based upon the work of the elementary schools. types of this These embrace the higher elementary schools, which afford a four-year course in practical and theoretical science arranged according to local needs; the day trade schools, furnishing a substitute for apprenticeship, which is now becoming obsolete; and the evening continuation schools for children who have left the elementary schools at fourteen without completing the higher grades. Thus, while industrial education is still in the experimental stage, England has come to recognize that the country cannot successfully enter into world competition without it.


Development of Industrial Education in the United States. The real growth of industrial education did not occur in the United States until late in the nineteenth century. By that time it had become evident that natural ability and adaptability were no longer sufficient, 1 See pp. 343f. and 345. 2 See p. 343.

present three

training, higher elementary

schools, day

trade schools, and evening schools.


cities of the

about the

middle of the nineteenth century, there

but that real skill and technical knowledge were needed. With the immense body of unskilled foreigners and under international competition, American industrial development could be maintained only in the same way as in Europe by training an adequate supply of expert workers. In the larger At first this type of education was furnished through phiUnited States, lanthropy and private enterprise. Under such auspices there sprang up about the middle of the century a number of evening continuation schools in the larger cities. arose a num- Among these were the Cooper Union and the Mechanics' ber of volun- Institute in New York, the Franklin Union and the tary evening continuation Spring Garden Institute in Philadelphia, the Ohio Meschools for in- chanics' Institute in Cincinnati, the Virginia Mechanics' ing, but the Institute in Richmond, and the evening classes of the public schools Young Men's Christian Association of various places. Simple as this beginning was, the public schools were slow to follow the example, and it was not until very recently that evening classes in drawing, mathematics, science, and technical subjects were organized by the public school system.

dustrial train

were very

slow to estab

lish this even

ing training.

Day instruc

tion was first

New York

Trade School, founded in

though for

only two sim

The first vocational institution to be conducted in the offered by the daytime was the New York Trade School, founded in 1881 by Richard T. Auchmuty. He wished to have American mechanics trained for the building trades, and 1881, and, al- believed that apprenticeship could no longer serve the twenty years purpose. Because of the economic difficulties in attending, the pupils were at first given a course of only four months. Similar institutions arose slowly. At the end of twenty years there were but two more,-The Williamson Free School of Mechanical Trades near Philadelphia and the Baron de Hirsch Trade School in New York, but ized through since then the development has been more rapid. Since

ilar institutions were started, during the

twentieth century a large

number have

been organ

vate support


1910 more than a dozen trade schools have been organ- public or priized through public and private support and in different or upon a parts of the country, and a number of other schools have commercial been opened upon a commercial basis. By 1906 the first public trade school was established. In that year Columbus, Georgia, opened as an integral part of the city system a Secondary Industrial School, in which specific trades were taught. A year later the Milwaukee School of Trades was adopted by the city. These were soon followed by the organization of public trade schools in Philadelphia, Portland (Oregon), Worcester, Indianapolis, and elsewhere. These schools are mostly for youths between sixteen and twenty-five, but 'preparatory trade schools' for younger boys have also been started in New York, Massachusetts, and other states. Such schools offer courses in drawing, elementary science, shop calculations, accounting, business forms, history, and English, and afford a knowledge of shop materials and methods rather than training in a specific trade.

schools, which

afford train

grown up,


Another recent variety of trade school is the 'part- 'Part-time' time' institution, which gives students some theoretical and formal training while they are obtaining their prac- ing during apprenticeship, tical experience. These schools somewhat resemble the have recently Fortbildungsschulen, but the individualistic spirit of and in some American industry has as yet generally kept employers instances are from releasing their apprentices for instruction during the working period of the day. This part-time alternation of practical and theoretical training is sometimes carried on within a commercial establishment. By such an arrangement the maximum of correlation between the two types of instruction can be accomplished, but the plan has been feasible only in the case of very large corporations.

within a commercial estab


Training for industrial leaders is


through en

ary techni

cal schools,

technical high

schools, or

Higher training to equip leaders for the industries with greater skill, technical knowledge, and responsibility has likewise come to be furnished. This has been accomdowed or sub- plished through secondary technical schools that are sidized second-well endowed, supported by men of wealth, or partially subsidized by the state; through the more recent technical high schools established by a number of the larger cities; and through alternating the instruction of a reguhigh school or lar high school or college with practical work in an industrial establishment upon some coöperative basis. Hence a great interest and activity in industrial education are now everywhere in evidence, and laws establishing and supervising it have been enacted in a number of the American commonwealths.


between a

college and an

industrial establishment.

schools to pre

ness career

has also come to be generally recognized.

Commercial Education in Germany.-But the modern development of vocational training throughout the leading countries has not been confined to industrial lines. With the extension of the sphere of commerce and the development of its organization that have taken place The need of in the nineteenth century, it has come to be recognized pare for a busi- that a thorough preparation is also essential to a business career. Only recently, however, has this training been felt to be a proper function of the schools, since for many years it was opposed by educators as sordid and commercializing, and by business men as unpractical and ineffective. Both classes have now been brought to realize the essential unity of their interests and the need of mutual support, and the rapid growth of commercial education indicates an appreciation of its usefulness and the attempt to respond to a real need. Germany is generally admitted to lead in commercial as in industrial education. The growth of this training has taken place

pose have been evolved private con

schools, pub

since 1887, but there is now offered under state control a unified and thorough preparation for any line of business. In Germany for this pur Besides private continuation schools, in which a course of three years in modern languages and elementary commercial studies can be obtained, there have grown up tinuation both public secondary schools and university courses lic secondary in which a thorough general education and theoretical schools, and work in commerce, as well as a practical and technical training, are provided. In the higher work of the universities, which is largely a product of the twentieth century, extensive courses, including eight modern languages and a wide range of economics, politics, and law, are offered, and a large amount of specialization is encouraged.



England has until recently, been rather indifferent to



Commercial Schools in England and France. Thus Germany has reached a considerable degree of efficiency in commercial education, and has thereby greatly developed her commerce. No other country has advanced so far in this direction. On the other hand, for a nation of commercial supremacy, England has, until lately, been rather indifferent to this type of education, although the leaders in thought and action have awakened and become uneasy about the situation. Examinations upon commercial subjects are now offered by various associations, but there is little coöperation, and the schools still cram their pupils to meet these tests, rather than educate them. There are several varieties of schools, although but number of relatively few of each kind. Continuation schools have schools, pribeen established and recognized by the Board of Educa- public evention,1 a number of private schools and public evening ing courses, courses have sprung up, a few large cities have started commercial 1 See p. 306.

but there

have now been estab

lished or this

purpose a


vate schools


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