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the intellect. We begin with certainty, and not doubt. We know ourselves thinking and perceiving material objects. Not only do all men admit necessary ideas, but they must. Agnosticism is intellectual suicide. Only "cranks" deny their own existence. "We know matter as existing, but we also know, and this directly, that it has relations to other things known, that it is in space, and that there is causation in its action. We also know mind as existing, and we know it to have being, potency, spirituality, and relations to things." Endowed with intuition, we build on the rock. "Philosophy," says Carlyle, "can bake no bread; but she can procure for us God, freedom, and immortality." Psychology can build no railroads, but she can give us certainty. A knowledge of our own capabilities renders agnosticism impossible.

Growth of Noumenal-Perception.-Each act of senseperception involves noumenal-perception. I perceive, not abstract properties, but things having properties. I perceive, not abstract mental acts, but self knowing, feeling, acting. Thus it is evident that the child gains necessary ideas as involved in the perception of phenomena. They are seen dimly at first. While all men accept and act upon necessary ideas, few distinctly state them to themselves. No one denies his own existence, or that he is in space, or that he grows old, but few grasp distinctly and fully these ideas. This power, though early active, is probably the latest of all the faculties in reaching full activity and development. These necessary or ultimate ideas seem to develop in the following order: Our first noumenal-percepts are concrete notions of objective realities. We know things having

properties. The ideas, time and space, appear in connection with our ideas of things. Next we observe change, and directly gain the cause-idea. Next we gain the idea-law-through our knowledge of the uniform ways in which energies act. Finally, we gain the idea— this unity—from our knowledge of the co-ordination of things. Thus, step by step, we advance to the conception of the universe as the perfect unity. Tennyson, holding the tiny flowering plant, well expresses this idea : "I pluck you out of the crannies;

Hold you here, root and all, in my hand,
Little flower-but if I could understand
What you are, root and all, all in all,
I should know what God and man is."

SUGGESTIVE STUDY-HINTS.

Review. Place on the board your diagram of conscious-perception, and also the diagram of sense-perception. Compare by topics with your analyses of noumenal-perception.

What is meant by noumenal-perception? by noumena?

Mention the names applied to noumenal-perception. Which name do you prefer? Why? Give the distinction between noumena and phenomena. Illustrate. Give the etymology of noumenon and the meaning of noumena. Why do we use this hard word?

What do you mean by necessary ideas? Name several necessary ideas. Prove that time is a necessary idea.

Analyze two of your acts of noumenal-perception. What do you discover?

Name the three conditions of cognizing necessary ideas. State the first test of a necessary idea. Illustrate. Give the second test and illustrate. Give the third; the fourth.

What is a noumenal-percept? Are percepts general or particular notions? Illustrate. Give some of the names applied to noumenal percepts. Explain. Criticise the expression "innate ideas." Are powers innate? Are all ideas acquired?

Place the tree of necessary ideas on the board. Test the fruit. State the author's definition of noumenal-perception; your definition; definition of Dr. Laws; Hamilton's definition; White's definition.

Show that agnosticism disappears in the light of the true psychology. What is agnosticism? Why do some persons claim to be agnostics? Is absolute agnosticism possible?

Letter. You will need to explain and illustrate very clearly. Though not more difficult to understand than sense-perception, your friend may not be familiar with noumenal-perception, and will need very full explanations.

TOPICAL ANALYSIS OF CHAPTER VIII.—NOUMENALPERCEPTION.

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Marks....

NAMES.

Universality.
Independence.

Singular notions.

Concrete notions.

Notions of necessary realities.

Noumenal-percepts and necessary ideas.
Noumenal-intuitions and ultimate ideas.
Necessary truths and first truths.

A priori ideas and intuitions.
Innate ideas and connate ideas.
Categorical ideas, etc.

VI. First Truths (grouped by Bascom).

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1. Time.

Disprove.

3. Methods.

IX. Growth and Development of Noumenal-perception.

2. Means.

CHAPTER IX.

PERCEPTIVE KNOWING- -GENERAL VIEW.

Perceptive Knowing is simply Direct Insight.-Self stands face to face with noumena as well as with phenomena. I do not prove to you that the sun is bright, that you despise cowards, or that something makes the apple fall. You know these things at once. All immediate concrete knowing is intuitive. Perceptive knowing is intuitive knowing, is immediate knowing, is presentative knowing, is simple cognition.

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The Perceptive Faculties are the Capabilities to know immediately.-Because we are endowed with direct insight, these powers are called intuitive faculties. As we acquire immediate knowledge, these are also called the acquisitive faculties. Because the things known are made present, some term these the presentative faculties. Simple cognitive powers is also a good name, as these faculties give us knowledge in its simplest form. The Perceptive Powers. The Intuitive Powers. The Acquisitive Powers.

Names.

The Presentative Powers.

The Simple Cognitive Powers.

We perceive Noumena as well as Phenomena.-We have direct insight into the matter-world, the mindworld, and the world of necessary realities. We are endowed with three intuitive powers, each opening to us a distinct world. In each perceptive act each of the three forms of perception supplements the others.

The Perceptive Faculties.

Sense-Perception.
Conscious-Perception.

Sense-Perception is the Capability to gain Elementary Sense-Knowledge.-We acquire knowledge through the senses. Sense-perception is the best possible name for this faculty. As we know at once the outer world, this faculty is properly called outer-perception, external-perception, and objective-perception. Perception is brief but indefinite.

Names.

Sense-Perception.
Outer-Perception.

Objective-Perception.
Perception.

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