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any one of these five ways. The possibilities of recalling are thus multiplied many fold.






1. Resemblance.—Resembling objects tend to bring up each other. Like tends to recall like. This cottage reminds me of my childhood home. The youth I just met called back to mind my college friend. Similar sounds and odors and flavors and emotions tend to suggest each other. But it is needless to multiply examples. Each moment you may observe the workings of this law. You may give several illustrations from your own experience.

2. Contrast. Contrasted objects tend to bring up each other. Dissimilars recall dissimilars. Darkness suggests light, pain suggests

pleasure, evil suggests good, death suggests life. You may give examples in your own experience.

3. Contiguity.-Experiences which occur together tend to suggest each other. This is the great central method of association and suggestion. Places and things near together suggest each other. Versailles suggests Paris, Brooklyn suggests New York. Places also suggest events occurring at or near them. Philadelphia suggests the Declaration of Independence, West Point suggests Arnold's treason. Contiguous occurrences tend to bring up each other. Ideas which have been in the mind at the same time tend to recall each other. Experiences which occur together or in immediate succession tend to suggest each other. You see two persons together. The sight of one will tend to suggest the other. Association of words, of sounds, of thoughts, of forms occurring together are of this kind. Events occurring near together are thus associated. Waterloo suggests St. Helena. Of a group of contemporaneous events, each suggests the adjacent links, and so on. You may give illustrations from your experience.

4. Correlation.-Correlated ideas tend to bring up each other. Dependent and related ideas tend to suggest each other. The end suggests the means, the effect the cause, the conclusion the premises. Things related suggest each other. Signs suggest the signification, as the mathematical signs. The sword suggests power. What is suggested by the flag, the cross, the crown, the altar, the pulpit, the platform?

Certain sounds or sights have come to awaken in our minds ideas, and they are ideas which have been associated by the eye and by the ear. In other words, things seen and things heard suggest not themselves, but something else that stood in connection with them. Human language, whether spoken or written, is an extended illustration of this law of suggestion. We have come by this law to have certain thoughts arise in the mind when certain words are presented to us. There is no reason why horse should instantly bring up the picture of a horse, except that we have associated with that word that animal.

5. Analogy. Things analogous tend to bring up each other. The river rolling on for ever suggests the endless flight of time; spring suggests youth, and winter old age. White suggests purity, and purple suggests royalty. Analogies more or less striking pervade the thought-world.

Marvelous, almost infinite, are the associations of ideas, emotions, actions. The law of suggestion works wonders, and the most wonderful of all is the power to call back to consciousness the experiences of a long life.

Forgetting. It is a beneficent law that evil, painful, and unimportant things shall fade from memory. We refuse to recall what would give us pain or uselessly burden memory. This is the true Lethe. On the other hand, we live over and over again our joyful experiences, and they stay with us forever. Forgetting is as necessary to a happy life as remembering.

Growth of Memory.The early activity of memory is a familiar fact. When a few weeks old the infant recognizes its nurse, and when a few months old it recognizes words as the signs of ideas. Objective, or concrete memory be


comes quite active during the second year, and reaches full activity about the tenth year. Childhood is peculiarly the time to cultivate concrete memory, or memory of things and concrete facts. About the tenth year the pupil begins to acquire and recall readily semi-abstractions, or the concrete and the abstract combined. By the fourteenth year abstract memory, or memory of classifications, principles, and inferences, is quite active, and seems to be fully active at eighteen. From the tenth year to the eighteenth year is pre-eminently the period for the higher forms of memory-culture. In manhood, memory is kept vigorous by use, and certainly may be greatly strengthened in special directions. Even the aged may, by systematic effort, keep memory strong. The tendency to live exiled in the past should be resisted. The world is full of new beauty and new truth. Let the aged keep en rapport with the present, and keep memory vigorous by constantly recalling recent acquisitions.

Development of Memory.*—We recall most readily what we apprehend most clearly. Persistent effort in faithfully reproducing our past experiences educates memory. A good memory is of incalculable value. It enables us to compare, combine, and firmly interlock past and present acquisitions. One with a poor memory gropes in the dark. Because he can not command his facts, he can not do effective thinking. Great men have almost invariably possessed great memories.

[As a magnet will increase its force if a slight increase is made daily to the weight it supports, so the memory of numbers, dates, facts, and principles may be indefinitely increased by committing

* See "Education of Memory" in "Applied Psychology and Teaching."

an additional one or two each day to memory, and taking care by frequent reviews that nothing once memorized shall escape. But equal care should be taken not to overburden the power of recollection by undertaking too many new items at a time. Let the student make a special effort with precisely the kind of recollection that he is most deficient in, be it names, dates, shapes, or whatever it be, and he will find that, by persistent practice for a few months, he can bring the special power to the front. The habit of attention to likeness and difference, so that the mind at once takes in the species and differentia involuntarily, is the habit that secures good memory.]

Systematic and persistent exercise in recalling tends to develop memory. A plan of work that secures such exercise may be called a method of educating this power. Good study and good teaching promote the growth of memory.

Comparative Psychology.-The brute associates impressions, and present impressions suggest to it former impressions. The brute recalls its past experiences. As animal experience is limited to the sensuous, so brute recollection is limited to recalling sensuous impressions. Impressions are vague intellectual products lower than ideas. That present impressions tend to suggest past impressions is the great law of brute memory.


Review. Explain intuition. Why are the perceptive faculties called intuitive powers? Define each of the perceptive powers. Distinguish sense-percepts, conscious-percepts, and noumenal-percepts. Give two examples of each. Etc. Take your examples and illustrations largely from the studies you are now pursuing. One example from your own experience may be worth more to you than ten from other sources.

What is meant by representation? By representative powers! What other names are applied to these powers? Name the three representative faculties. Give an example of each activity.

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