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imagination when the new forms of our past experi

ences are ideals.

The Representative Powers.

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Memory.
Phantasy.

Imagination.

2. Memory is the power of self to represent in old forms, called memories, his past experiences. Memory is the capability to recall past experiences unchanged. As images are the most prominent features of our recollections, memory is sometimes called reproductive imagination. Memory is every way preferable. It neither misleads nor confuses. It is specific, and is in universal use. Treating memory as a group of faculties can serve no good purpose. Self, as memory, does all recalling. Take away memory, and our past would be a blank. The soul, as memory, reproduces its past experiences. Retention, recollection, association, and recognition are merely elements of complete acts of memory.

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3. Phantasy is the power of self to represent spontaneously his past experiences in new forms called phantasms. Self, as memory, recalls his experiences; self, as phantasy, spontaneously weaves these experiences into new forms called phantasms. Phantasy is the capability to manufacture these new forms. In this form of representation the soul, at the time, is not conscious of making these pictures out of its revived experiences; it is only conscious of the phantasms. Phantasy is undirected or drifting activity; hence it is called the

drifting imagination. Fantasy, fancy, and phantasy are merely different forms of the same word. Fancy is used in many senses, and is extremely indefinite. Drifting imagination is specific, but tends to confuse. As phantasy is never used but to designate this faculty, it is given the preference. Because images are so conspicuous in recollections, some use phantasy and recollection as synonyms. But the soul, as phantasy, does no recollecting; it merely weaves its recollections, without intention or effort, into new forms. Representation, as phantasy, conjoins revived experiences, forming phantasms.

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4. Imagination is the power of self to represent intentionally his past experiences in new forms, called ideals. Self, as memory, reproduces his experiences; self, as imagination, manufactures out of these experiences ideals. Memory, in this form of representation, is subordinate, merely furnishing materials; imagination is the master builder. Imagination is the capability to evolve the ideal from the actual. All agree in calling the power of the soul purposely to create, or construct, or form ideals, imagination. To distinguish imagination proper from reproductive imagination or memory, and from drifting imagination or phantasy, it is sometimes called the creative or constructive imagination. Imagination, unmodified, best designates this power. Imagination.

Names.

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Constructive Imagination.
Creative Imagination.

5. Representative knowledge is re-knowledge. Knowledge gained directly is intuitive knowledge, or original knowledge, or presentative knowledge, or perceptive knowledge; but when we re-know, our cognitions are called re-knowledge, or representative knowledge, or revived knowledge.

Forms of Representative Knowledge.—

Memories.
Phantasms.
Ideals.

6. Memories are reproduced experiences. The original experiences or old forms are recalled just as they were experienced. Products of memory are reproduced acquisitions. When we recall our experiences unchanged, we call them memories, recollections, or remembrances. Remembered percepts are simply repercepts. Remembered concepts are merely re-concepts. Remembered judgments are re-judgments.

Misleading.—To call memory-products concepts or conceptions is misleading. This relic of the old psychology tends to confuse the learner. A concept is a general notion, and conception is the power to discern general notions. These terms are thus used in logic and literature as well as in modern psychology.

Memory-Products are called

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Conceptions (obsolete and misleading).

7. Phantasms are crude mental pictures which seem to be realities. Webster says: "A phantasm is an image formed by the mind and supposed to be real." The soul, out of its revived experiences, spontaneously forms a panorama for its own amusement. These moving scenes appear to be objective realities,

and self seems to be a spectator. The products of phantasy take various

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8. Ideals are ideas and objects blended. Out of its revived experiences the soul, as imagination, constructs new forms, called ideals. Ideals are created out of reals, and may become realities. Out of his experiences the inventor creates an ideal steam-engine. When he builds the engine, the ideal becomes a reality. The products of imagination take various

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SUGGESTIVE STUDY-HINTS.

Place on your left the diagrams of the three perceptive powers, and on your right the diagrams of the three representative powers. With these before you study Chapter XII. Compare the faculties named, topic by topic.

Keep constantly in mind the important fact that in its action, as in its nature, the mind is a unit, and that a faculty is merely a distinct capability of the soul.

State the office of each of the presentative and representative powers. Give the characteristics of each. Define each. Name the products of each of these powers.

Could there be representation without perception? Could there be phantasy without memory? Does imagination imply memory? References. For a more elaborate treatment of representation, the student is referred to "Human Intellect," Porter; "Simple Cognitive Powers," McCosh; "Outlines of Psychology," Sully.

PART IV.

THE THOUGHT FACULTIES.

CHAPTER XIV.-CONCEPTION.

XV.-JUDGMENT.

XVI.-REASON.

XVII,-THOUGHT-KNOWING-GENERAL VIEW.

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