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outlines assist us to clear notions. We can not imagine a concept. Why? Illustrate.

4. Judgment and reason make large contributions. Indeed, every act of classification, as will be seen further on, involves these powers.

Comparative Psychology.-Can the brute discern general notions? The brute perceives things and notices resemblances, but can it think sameness? The brute discerns concrete objects, but does it discern abstract qualities? Can it think the many into one? Is the brute endowed with even rudimentary conception? Does any brute use intelligently abstract words to express general ideas? Science, at the present time, can only give negative answers to these questions.

1. Man thinks individual notions into concepts; the brute perceives individuals, but is incapable of forming general notions.

2. Man uses language; the brute is dumb. The instinctive cry of the brute is not language. Only man is endowed with the power to form and express abstract notions.

Growth of Conception.-Children, when two or three years old, make crude classifications. Boys and girls classify the objective world. Youths master the classifications of sciences. Men master systems. The steady growth of this power is manifest from year to year.

Education of Conception.*-Development of conception extends mental power almost infinitely. I think mammal, and it is equal to perceiving millions of individuals. You are able easily to think myriads into a few classes. Thus you make science. "The training

*See "Applied Psychology."

of conception should begin in connection with senseobservation. Objects should be laid in juxtaposition, and the child invited to discover their similarities of form, color, etc. And here his active impulses may be appealed to by giving him a confused multitude of objects and inviting him to sort them into classes. By such a direct inspection of a number of examples together, notions of simple classes of natural objects, as species of animals and flowers, as well as of geometric forms and numbers, may be gained. A sufficient variety of instances must be supplied in every case, but the number required will differ according to the character of the notion to be formed. This operation of comparing and classifying should be supplemented by naming the objects thus grouped together, and pointing out in the form of a definition the more important of the traits they have in common." * "The material objects, chalk, salt, coal, and the common metals, will af ford us numerous lessons; and so will the series of inquiries into the nature, properties, and action of water. For form we may use the regular solids, surfaces, and lines, while botany and natural history will provide an inexhaustible supply of lessons on life. The main thing will be to make sure that the child states, in clear, unambiguous language (which he understands), only such facts as he has really observed.” †

SUGGESTIVE STUDY-HINTS.

Review. Climb the tree (p. 56) and ascend the pyramid (p. 152) to conception, giving definition, office, and product of each faculty. Give the distinction between perception and representation, etc.

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What is thinking? Why are the thinking faculties called the comparative powers? Why the logical powers? The elaborative faculties? The reflective faculties? Give the meaning of discern. (We perceive things having properties, and discern relations between things.)

What is meant by conception? Analyze two of your acts of conception. Tell what you do. Place on the board a diagram

showing how you think up to general notions.

First step. What do you mean by analytic observation? Illustrate. Why does this come first? Second step. What do you mean by abstraction? Illustrate. Give etymology of the word. What kind of concepts are hardship? beauty? goodness? Third step. What do you mean by comparison? Illustrate. What do you discern? Fourth step. What do you mean by generalization ? Illustrate. Which do you do first, abstract or generalize? Fifth step. What do you mean by classification? Illustrate.

State the office of conception. Illustrate. Out of what are sense-percepts made? Concepts?

Name the first characteristic of conception; the second; the third. How do imagination and conception differ?

Give author's definition of conception; yours; Schuyler's. Why do you object to Day's?

What are the products of conception called? What is a concept? Illustrate. Why are concepts called general notions? groupnotions? class-notions? Give distinctions between percepts and concepts. Are the terms, idea and notion, synonyms?

What are the properties of a concept? What do you mean by denomination? Give five examples. What do you mean by extension? Illustrate by the thought-pyramid, beginning at the bottom. What do you mean by intention? Illustrate by the thought-pyramid, beginning at the top.

What do you mean by an individual? by a species? by a genus? Give five examples of each. Give the distinction between apprehension and comprehension. Give five examples. In what sense is species used in zoölogy in logic?

What distinction do you make between analysis and synthesis? Why do you analyze? Synthesize? What is a logical definition? Write on the board, in two forms, definitions of Ethiopian, man, mammal, vertebrate, vegetable, inorganic. Why can not being be defined?

Give the relation of conception to perception; to memory; to imagination; to judgment.

Letter. Write with great care a letter to your friend, giving a clear account of conception. As this is the most difficult of the mental powers to master, you may ask your friend to study it patiently and work it out.

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III. Elements of an Act of Conception.
Analytic observation.

Abstraction.

Comparison.

IV. Office of Conception.

To gain concepts.

Generalization.

Classification.

To name concepts.

Thinking, but not picturing.

V. Characteristics of Conception.

Discerning concepts.

Naming concepts.

VI. Definitions of Conception.

Author's. Original. Various.

VII. Names of Products of Conception.

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Gives the differentia.

Refers to a higher class.

XI. Comparative Psychology.

XII. Growth and Education of Conception.

CHAPTER XV.

JUDGMENT.

By this is meant the power to discern the agreement or disagreement of ideas. You say the mountain is high; here you discern and declare the agreement between the notions high and mountain. Perceptiveknowledge and thought-knowledge differ in two respects: 1. We gain perceptive-knowledge intuitively but reach thought-knowledge by processes of elaboration. 2. Perceptive-knowledge is concrete, while thought-knowledge is abstract. Concepts are our first thought-products. We think things into classes by discerning relations of resemblance. As the reaper binds the wheat in bundles, so we think individual things into groups. Judgments are our next higher thoughtproducts. We discover that ideas are so related as to agree or disagree. Self, as judgment, discerns and asserts the agreement and disagreement of notions. We discern truth-relations, which we express in sentences. Analysis of Acts of Judgment. The horse is a

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I discern and assert the agreement of the notions vertebrate and horse, and also that of x and y. Discerning and asserting the agreement of notions is called

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