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Classes of Feelings.

The Instincts.

The Physical Feelings.
The Emotions.

Feeling is mental agitation and impulse. Some feelings are blind but guiding impulses these we call instincts. Some feelings are occasioned by organic bodily excitations-these we name physical feelings. Some feelings are occasioned by ideas these we term emotions. This easy classification of the feelings is thought to be exhaustive as well as convenient.



By these we mean guiding impulses. All feelings are blind; many feelings move to action; but instincts. are the only feelings which guide. The guiding impulses or instincts are clearly a distinct class of feelings. Where intelligence can not act, instinct moves the animal to blindly conform to law. Creative Wisdom has implanted in the animal marvelous energies to adapt means to ends without knowing why. Instinct is adaptative or regulative impulse; it is a blind tendency to wise ends. (The discussion of Instinct [see Chapter II, p. 15] seems to be as full as is desirable in an elementary work. A careful examination of the chapter on Instinct will aid the student to master the following chapters.)



By the physical feelings we mean our capabilities to feel organic affections of the body. The feelings occasioned by external excitants affecting the sensorium are called special sensations; the feelings occasioned by the affections of the organs and tissues of the body are called general sensations; but the feelings occasioned by cravings for bodily needs are termed appetites. Our capabilities to feel in these ways are termed

The Physical Feelings.

The Special Sensations.

The General Sensations.
The Appetites.

All feeling is mental, but mental agitations and impulses originating in organic affections of the body may appropriately be termed physical feelings.

Sensation. By this is meant the conscious affection of the sensorium. Agitations occasioned by affections of the special sensor apparatuses, as in seeing, hearing, smelling, tasting, touching, are termed special sensations. Agitations occasioned by affections of the general sensor apparatuses are called general sensations; as, sensations of hunger, thirst, weariness. (See Chapters IV, V, and VI. Sensation is there examined at length. You are recommended to review these chapters before advancing.)

Mechanism of Sensation.-The nervous mechanism includes the end organs, the sensor-nerves, and the central organs. It is the office of the end organs to transmute the physical molecular processes into physiological processes. The molecular-commotion moves through the

nerves to the central organs. The molecules of the central organs are capable of assuming to each other inconceivably varied relations in transmuting and redistributing nerve-commotion. Such is the vital mechanism of sensation. The self-conscious soul feels the excitations of this mechanism, and these feelings are called sensations. Self as sense-perception out of his sensations forms ideas called sense-percepts. "But the con

nections between the different cerebral areas and their functions are so complex and subtile that physiological science will need a long time to disentangle them; it may be doubted whether it will ever succeed in doing this completely."


By these we mean the cravings for bodily wants. Our acts of cognition are more or less definite, and we are able to examine them with considerable certainty. We shall find it much more difficult to scrutinize our feelings; but patient, penetrating effort will enable us to conquer this new world.

Analysis of Acts of Appetite.-You have not taken food for twelve hours. The dead tissues have been removed during sleep. The aching void within is the cry of hunger, or the appetite for food. The soul feels the bodily cry of hunger, and also feels the desire to satisfy the appetite. These feelings occasion the impulse to seek and take food. A limited quantity of food temporarily satisfies hunger, but when the system requires more nutriment, the craving begins again. You may analyze thirst, and tell what you discover. Does the soul feel the cry of thirst?

Office of the Appetites.-Self, as appetite, feels the cries of the body for bodily wants; these cries give rise to desires for means to satisfy the wants. When our bodies need rest, we desire sleep to satisfy the cry of sleepiness. Craving for objects to gratify the organic needs of the body is the office of appetite. Each appetite has its special office. What is the office of hunger? of thirst? of restiveness? of respiration?

Characteristics of an Appetite.-How do you distinguish an appetite from other feelings? From your analysis you discover the three peculiarities of an appetite:

1. An appetite is a craving occasioned by an organic need of the body. Give the physiological explanation, and show that this is true of hunger, thirst, sleepiness.

When satisfied,

2. An appetite is intermittent. the craving ceases for a time, but returns. Explain physiologically, and show that respiration, sleepiness, hunger, are intermittent.

3. An appetite has physical limits. The amount that can be taken of food, or of drink, or of air, or of sleep, or of exercise, is limited. Explain physiologically. All feelings having these characteristics may be safely classed as appetites.

The Appetites. The following seem to be the only feelings that can be classed as appetites. Each of these feelings has the three characteristics of an appetite :


Hunger, the appetite for food.
Thirst, the appetite for drink.

Sleepiness, the appetite for sleep.

Restiveness, the appetite for exercise or rest.
Sexuality, the appetite for sex.

Respiration, the appetite for air.

Appetite Defined.—It is difficult to define a feeling, though we are just as conscious of our feelings as of our knowings. We are not in doubt about what the feeling is, but we find it hard to tell.

1. The appetites are cravings for the gratification of bodily wants. Because the organic cries of the body give rise to mental cravings, we call these feelings physical feelings. These cravings have a physical origin and a physical object.

2. Original definition. You may write a definition in your own language. You must not confound desires occasioned by these cravings nor sensations accompanying the gratification of the appetite with the craving of an appetite.

3. Various Definitions.-1. GREGORY: Appetites are cravings having for their object the well-being of the body. 2. PEABODY: Appetites are cravings of the body designed to secure the continued life of the individual and the race. 3. McCоSH: Appetites are mental cravings for objects to gratify bodily needs. 4. STEWART: Appetites are cravings which take their rise from the body, and are designed for the preservation of the individual and the continuation of the species.

Appetency is craving for specific gratification, and is the basis of feeling. You crave pears-you say you are very fond of pears. This fondness or appetency gives rise to the craving. So with all appetites.

Natural and Modified Appetites. Each appetite is an endowment, but an appetite may be modified by experience.

1. Natural appetites are unperverted appetites. The appetites for suitable food and drink, for pure air, for necessary sleep, are natural appetites.

2. Modified appetites are called artificial appetites,

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