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create. All organic forces, all vital forces, all mental energies, are inborn endowments. Instinct uniformly tends to wise ends; but the wisdom is back of the law, back of the energy. The brute, without knowing why, adapts means to ends. This blind impulse to wise action is implanted by Creative Wisdom.

2. Instincts are transmitted. However far back, the instinct-germ, in some degree, is regarded as an endowment. That instincts may be greatly modified, and that modified instincts may be transmitted, is now science. The pigeon is endowed with the homing instinct, but centuries of training were necessary to give us the carrier-pigeon. The pointer-dog is one of many good illustrations. The striking modifications in the instincts of domesticated animals is the most familiar proof. While it is an established law of heredity that like tends to produce like, we know that environment works striking modifications. Man trains animals on the line of native instincts. This is the only improvement of which brutes are capable. But no amount of training or change of environment can produce a honeymaking quadruped; something can not be evolved from nothing. Given instinct-germs as endowments, and the laws of heredity and evolution may account for all modifications of instincts and all phases of instinctive action.

References. For fuller accounts of instinct the reader is referred to "Instinct in Brute and Man," Chadbourne; "Mental Evolution in Animals," Romanes; "Mind in the Lower Animals,” Lindsay.


Review. Give the three offices of attention. Give your definition of attention. What distinction do you make between outer attention and inner attention? Why is it so difficult to teach inattentive pupils? Why can the youth do more than the child? Etc., etc.

Give an example of instinct that you have observed. Why does the hen turn her eggs? Analyze the nest-building instinct of the bird, and the dam-building instinct of the beaver.

Give a distinction between the office of attention and the office of instinct. What do you mean by the office of a faculty? Give the three special offices of instinct. Illustrate each by cases you have observed.

What do you understand by the characteristics of a faculty? Give the four characteristics of instinct. Give examples.

Give your definition of instinct. Why do you prefer it to the other definitions?

What do you mean by reflex action? by automatic action? Give distinctions between gravity and reflex action; reflex action and instinct. Give examples of each. What do you understand by unconscious action? by conscious action? by self-conscious action?

How do instinct and intellect differ? Give five examples. Explain the diagram showing the relations of instinct and intellect. Why does man stand alone?

Name the three classes of instincts. Give five strictly brute instincts; five common to man and brute; five strictly human.

Give the distinction between an endowment and an evolution. Is the honey-making instinct an endowment, or the hereditary experience of the race? May instincts be modified by experience? Illustrate by domesticated animals. Are modified instincts transmitted? Like tends to reproduce like, is the great law of heredity: does this law extend to mind?

Letter. You may now write a letter to your friend, telling him what you know about instinct. Try your best to make clear to him the nature of this wonderful endowment. Above all, give him your own thoughts and your own illustrations in your own way. Writing such a letter will lead you to study instinct with the greatest care. Inclose with your letter your analysis of this chapter.

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Instinct decreases as Intellect increases.
Intellect decreases as Instinct increases.

Instinct predominates in the brute.

Intellect predominates in man.

VII. Classes of Instincts.

Strictly brute Instincts.

Common Instincts.

VIII. Origin of Instincts.

Not organized habits.

Not inherited experiences.

Instincts are endowments.

Strictly human Instincts.

Instinct is modified by experience and natural selection.

Modified Instincts are transmitted.

to you.



SCIENCE, in our times, must be presented in the language of the people. But new ideas need to be embodied in new terms. In your study of the matterworld, you have found it necessary to learn new terms to express your new acquisitions. As you explore the mind-world, you will at every step discover ideas new For their expression some unfamiliar terms must be used. Easy and familiar terms, when they express the ideas exactly, are the best; but precision must be secured, though at the cost of thoughtful research. The effort will be to lead you to form clear-cut ideas, and to give, in your own words, clear-cut definitions. When quarried and polished, you will treasure your definitions. You will find them more precious than diamonds.

In order that you may begin to build on the rock, you will find it best at the outset to master a few leading terms. In each case, work up to the idea before attempting a definition. A good dictionary is indispensable. Study the etymology and history of the word. Notice its uses. Endeavor to grasp its full meaning. Write in your own language a brief definition. Apply the definition by giving your own explanation and illustration. Consider as suggestive these brief hints. As in mathematics, work out everything for yourself. Mastery characterizes each successful educational step. Only weaklings cower and turn back

in the face of difficulties. Strenuous and persistent

effort educates.

I. Phenomena.

Physical Phenomena,

Mental Phenomena.

The word phenomenon means an appearance, and the plural, phenomena, appearances. The rose appears red, sweet-smelling, soft. I appear to myself cheerful, thankful, hopeful. Whatever appears to us is termed phenomena.

1. Physical Phenomena.-The apple appears white, soft, and delicious. The cube appears to have length, breadth, and thickness. Gold appears yellow, heavy, and malleable. All appearances coming to us through the senses are termed physical phenomena. Whatever of matter appears is called physical phenomena.

2. Mental Phenomena. I perceive the beautiful lily. I remember the cheering song. I discern that the sum of the three angles of a triangle is equal to two right angles. I grieve over the loved and lost. I determine to study psychology. I perceive myself remembering, thinking, feeling, and choosing. I am aware of my various mental acts; they appear to me, and hence are termed mental phenomena, or psychical phenomena. Whatever of mind appears is called mental phenomena.

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