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ceive concrete beauty, and consciously feel its spell. But the beauty idea is a necessary notion, is ultimate, is inexplicable. You may say that beauty is a thing of proportion and harmony; you merely give two of its numerous attributes. Whatever occasions beauty emotions we call beautiful, as the lily or the rainbow.

1. Objective beauty. I look upon the blushing rose and feel beauty. I listen to songs of birds, and feel beauty. I read the "Lay of the Last Minstrel," and feel beauty. I ponder the life of Florence Nightingale, and feel beauty. The something external which occasions beauty emotions is called objective beauty. Space, time, causation, and objective beauty are external realities. Beauty is objective.

2. Subjective beauty. By the subjective we mean the mind itself. Self stands face to face with beautyknows beauty intuitively. We are endowed with the intellectual power to behold beauty. Self feels beauty when in its presence. We are endowed with powers to feel beauty. The capabilities to perceive and enjoy beauty are subjective. Perceiving and feeling beauty are acts of the mind, and may be called subjective beauty. Beauty is subjective.

Ugliness. The opposite of beauty is ugliness. If beauty is proportion and harmony, ugliness is the lack of these. The ugly gives rise to ugly emotions. Ugliness is not merely the absence of beauty, it is something external that occasions repellent and disagreeable emotions. The beautiful pleases, the ugly displeases; the beautiful attracts, the ugly repels; the beautiful occasions joyous emotions, the ugly occasions depressing emotions. We desire the beautiful, but have an aver

sion for the ugly. Make a diagram of emotions incident to beauty and ugliness.

Beauty of Character is the highest type of beauty. When integrity, efficiency, and modesty blend in proportion and harmony, we have a Joseph, a Washington, a Jesus. Perfect character is perfect beauty. However ugly the body, the beauty of holiness covers the grand man or woman with a halo of glory. All moral deformity is ugly. A base character, as a Judas or a Nero, is the extreme of ugliness.

Emotions of Sublimity.-A cascade is beautiful; Niagara is sublime. Electrical experiments are beautiful; the thunder-storm is sublime. Dress-parade is beautiful; the battle is sublime. Vastness occasions emotions of the sublime. Whatever carries the mind into the infinite occasions the idea and feeling of sublimity.

"Beauty pleases and delights; sublimity awes, yet elevates." The emotion of insignificance is the opposite of the emotion of sublimity. Both emotions are occasioned by the familiar fable, "The mountain labored and brought forth a mouse." Give other examples.

Emotions of the Humorous. In view of the ludicrous, the witty, the humorous, the ego effervesces with pleasure. These emotions are called emotions of the ludicrous, of the witty, of the humorous. Isaac Barrow well says, "It may be demanded what the thing we speak of is, or what this facetiousness doth impart. To which question I might reply as Democritus did to him who asked the definition of a man. "Tis that which we all see and know; any one better apprehends

what it is by acquaintance than I can infer him by description. It is, indeed, a thing so versatile and multiform, appearing in so many shapes, so many postures, so many garbs, so variously apprehended by several eyes and judgments, that it seemeth no less hard to settle a clear and certain notion thereof than to make a portrait of Proteus, or to define the figure of the fleeting air. Its ways are unaccountable and inexplicable, being answerable to the numberless rovings of fancy and windings of language.'

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The emotions occasioned by the flat or the dry are the opposite of those occasioned by sparkling wit. "Humor, however strange it may seem, is very commonly associated with sympathy. It was remarked by Sir Walter Scott of Robert Burns, when he appeared in Edinburgh, that in his conversation there was a strange combination of pathos and humor. I am sure that these two, humor and sympathy, often go together. The man who never laughs, or who can not laugh heartily, I suspect is deficient in tenderness of heart, while he may be characterized by many virtues. Certain it is that in the writings of many of our great authors pathos and humor are found in the closest connection. "I believe that the fountains of smiles and tears lie nearer each other than most people imagine." *

Education of the Esthetic Emotions.t-We are rapidly reaching the conclusion that aesthetic culture is as important as intellectual culture. To this end, home is made beautiful, and the modern primary school, as well as the kindergarten, is full of beauty. Environments,

* McCosh.

+ See "Education of Beauty Emotions," " Applied Psychology."

objects, pictures, songs, plays, art-work, all tend to develop the beauty emotions. As the learner advances, he is thrilled with higher and still higher forms of beauty. What a revolution!

SUGGESTIVE STUDY-HINTS.

Review. What do you mean by the emotions? What distinction do you make between egoistic, altruistic, and cosmic emotions? Do ideas cause emotions, or merely occasion them?

What do you mean by the altruistic emotions? Is a capability to feel beauty and a beauty feeling the same? Illustrate. Name the classes of æsthetic emotions.

Analyze three cases of beauty emotions; three of the sublime; three of the humorous.

State the office of the beauty emotions; of the emotions of sublimity; of the humorous emotions; give examples in each case.

Tell the characteristics of beauty emotions; of sublimity emotions; of humorous emotions; give examples in each case.

Repeat the author's definition of æsthetic emotions; your definition; definitions of Haven, Bain, etc.

What is beauty? Objective beauty? Subjective beauty? Give an example of objective beauty; of subjective beauty.

What do you mean by ugliness? what you mean by beauty of character. an ugly character? Give examples.

Explain

Give examples.
Give examples. What is

Tell what you know about sublimity. How do beauty and sublimity differ? Give examples.

Tell what you know about humor. How do wit and humor differ? Illustrate.

Tell what you know about the culture of the æsthetic emotions. Letter.-In your letter tell about the beauty emotions in poetry and art.

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CONSCIENCE, OR THE ETHICAL EMOTIONS.

By conscience is meant the power to feel ethical emotions in view of right. The ethical emotions are the feelings occasioned by perceiving and discerning right. These feelings tend to universal right, and hence are classed with the truth emotions and the beauty emotions as cosmic emotions.

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