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BEFORE beginning the study of your capabilities in detail, it is important that you take a general view of your powers. To aid you in this, the soul-energies are here represented by a tree. "Like all graphic devices, it represents the facts only approximately." It is earnestly hoped, however, that this device will help you to gain true conceptions of the human soul.

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The one soul is capable of acting in different ways. These distinct soul-energies are called capabilities, or powers, or faculties. Self is an indivisible unit in knowing, in feeling, and in willing. A faculty is simply a method in which the mind can act. With the tree on the opposite page in view, you may examine carefully the outline of soul-energies.

Keep constantly in mind the central fact that the mind is one and acts as a unit. Each capability supplements all other capabilities. "The soul feels while it knows, and determines while it feels." As you study your individual powers you will recur often to this connected outline, and thus learn to view each of your energies in its relations to your other powers. will learn to think of a mental power as merely one of your capabilities.


The Perceptive Powers.-By these we mean our powers to know immediately. We know at once that ice is cold, that we are glad, that things exist and occupy space. We do not need to reason up to these ideas. We are endowed with capabilities to know some things directly. Our powers of direct insight are known by the following

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We behold immediately material things having qualities. We perceive the mountain as lofty and snowcapped. We perceive ourselves recalling and reasoning. Our capabilities to make present, or to know immediately, are called our presentative powers. As we know di

rectly, or intuitively, we call these faculties our intuitive powers. As perceptive knowing is the simplest form of knowing, we term these capabilities the simple cognitive powers. Cognize, to know, cognition, the act of knowing, and cognitive, the power to know, are valuable terms in mental science.

Sense-Perception, or Sense-Intuition. The Perceptive Powers Conscious Perception, or Consciousness. Noumenal-Perception, or Noumenal-Intuition.


That he may explore the matter-world, man is endowed with sense-perception. That he may gain selfknowledge, he is endowed with conscious-perception. That he may cognize the world of necessary realities and thus build on the rock, he is endowed with noumenal-perception.



By this is meant the power to perceive directly material objects. Self as sense-perception stands face to face with physical phenomena. I know at once this tree as large, green, cone-bearing. This capability is designated by the following



Sense-Perception, or Objective-Perception.
Outer-Perception, or External-Perception.
Sense-Intuition, or Perception.

Each term embodies the same idea-self endowed with the capability to know immediately the outer

world. Sense-perception, the power to gain knowledge through the senses, is most expressive, and is now universally used. For brevity, perception is often used, but is indefinite.

Sensation is the power to feel consciously sensor excitations. You speak. Sound-waves vibrate through the air, in my ears, through my auditory nerves, in my auditory ganglia. I feel the excitation; I hear you speak. I interpret the sensations; your words are to me signs of ideas. Self, as sense-perception, interprets sensations—converts sensations into ideas.

Sensation is the basis of all knowing. Without sensations there can be no sense-perceptions. Without particular notions there can be no general notions. In order that sense-perceptions may be, sensations must be. It is a curious fact that all our knowing begins with blind feelings. Out of these blind feelings we make our senseideas. Sense-perception includes sensation.

Acts of Sense-Perception analyzed.—Notice carefully yourself perceiving. What do you do when you perceive? What are the steps in acts of sense-perception? What are the products? Take this object. You press it; it is soft. You touch it; it is smooth. You smell it; it is fragrant. You drop it; the sound is slight. You see it; it is white. You interpret these sensations, and cognize the object as a rose. In this way you may profitably examine many acts of perception. You find in an act of sense-perception four distinct elements: sensation, recalling, perceiving, and self-perceiving.

1. Sensations are the stuff out of which sense-ideas are made. The blind see no colors; the deaf hear no sounds. The blind gain no percepts of color; the deaf gain no percepts of sound.

2. Recalling other experiences, you refer your sensations, immediate and revived, to the object. You perceive the fragrant white rose.

3. Perceiving. Fusing the sensations, immediate and recalled, you form an idea of the object. You interpret your sensations, and make out of them the notion, this soft, fragrant white rose. This is sense-perteiving.

4. Self-perceiving. You are aware that you perceive the rose. You stand face to face with material objects. You know directly self perceiving material things.

From your analysis of many acts of sense-perception you discover the

Office of Sense-Perception.-The soul is a unit, but is capable of acting in many ways. The distinct ways in which the soul can act are called soul-energies, mental powers, mental faculties, or mental capabilities. Office is used to designate the special work of a mental power in the mental economy. Self, as attention, concentrates effort; concentration is the office of attention. Self, as memory, recalls; recollection is the office of memory. Self, as sense-perception, interprets sensations, or converts sensations into ideas; interpreting sensations is the office of sense-perception. The mind, as sense-perception, forms sense-ideas, or gains a direct knowledge of material objects. From your analysis of acts of sense-perception you discover the

Characteristics of Sense-Perception. This power of self is distinguished from all his other capabilities by marked peculiarities :

1. Self, as sense-perception, knows intuitively physical phenomena. I know the board is black because I

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