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1 I



PAUL, a 1servant of Jesus Christ, called to be an apostle, (2 separated unto the gospel of God, "which he promised t3 afore by his prophets in the holy scriptures, "concerning his Son, who was born of the seed of David according to the flesh, "who was declared to be the Son of God with power, according to the spirit of holiness, by the resur(5 rection of the dead; even Jesus Christ our Lord, "through whom we received grace and apostleship, unto obedience of faith among all the nations, for his name's sake: (6 among whom are ye also, called to be Jesus Christ's: 7 "to all that are in Rome, beloved of God, called to be saints: Grace to you and peace from God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ.




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8 First, I thank my God through Jesus Christ for you all, that your faith is proclaimed throughout the whole world. "For God is my witness, whom I serve in my spirit in the gospel of his Son, how unceasingly I make Io mention of you, always in my prayers "making request, if by any means now at length I may be prospered by the will of God to come unto you. "For I long to see you, that I may impart unto you some spiritual gift, to the 12 end ye may be established; "that is, that I with you may be comforted in you, each of us by the other's faith, both 13 yours and mine. "And I would not have you ignorant, brethren, that oftentimes I purposed to come unto you


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A. V. CH. I. 2 (had); 3 which.. made; 4 (And)..from; 5 By..(have)..for..|| to the; 6 (the).. of.. Christ; 7 be; 8 spoken of; 9 with .. that without ceasing; 10 might have a prosperous journey; 12 together you.. me; 13 Now.

(and was hindered hitherto), that I might have some fruit (14 in you also, even as in the rest of the Gentiles. "I am debtor both to Greeks and to Barbarians, both to the wise and to the foolish. "So, as much as in me is, I am ready to preach the gospel to you also that are in Rome. (16 "For I am not ashamed of the gospel: for it is the power


of God unto salvation to every one that believeth; to the 17) Jew first, and also to the Greek. "For therein is revealed a righteousness of God by faith unto faith: as it is written, But the righteous shall live 'by faith.


For the wrath of God is revealed from heaven against all ungodliness and unrighteousness of men, who hold 19 down the truth in unrighteousness; "because that which may be known of God is manifest in them; for God mani(20 fested it unto them. "For the invisible things of him since the creation of the world are clearly seen, being perceived through the things that are made, even his everlasting power and divinity; that they may be without (21 excuse: "because that, knowing God, they glorified him not as God, neither gave thanks; but became vain in their reasonings, and their senseless heart was darkened. 22 "Professing themselves to be wise, they became fools, "and changed the glory of the incorruptible God for the likeness of an image of corruptible man, and of birds, and fourfooted beasts, and creeping things.



Wherefore God gave them up in the lusts of their hearts unto uncleanness, that their bodies should be dishonoured 25 among themselves: "for that they exchanged the truth of God for a lie, and worshipped and served the creature rather than the Creator, who is blessed for ever. Amen. For this cause God gave them up unto vile passions :


+Gt. from

2 Or, a wrath

5 Gr. unto the ages.

3 Or, hold the truth Gr passions of dishonour.

4 Or, so that they are

A.V.-but..let.. among..among other; 14 (the).. (the)..unwise; 15 at; 16 [of Christ]; 17; 19 hath shewed; 20 from..understood by.. eternal.. Godhead; . | so |..| are | ; 21 (when they) knew.. were thankful...imaginations..foolish; 23 uncorruptible..into.. made like; 24 [also] to dishonour..(own).. between; 25 Who changed..into.. more; 26 affections.




for their women changed the natural use into that which is against nature: "and likewise also the men, leaving the natural use of the woman, burned in their lust one toward another, men with men working unseemliness, and receiving in themselves that recompense of their error which was due.

And even as they refused to have God in their knowledge, God gave them up unto a reprobate mind, to do (29 those things which are not fitting; "being filled with all unrighteousness, wickedness, covetousness, maliciousness; full of envy, murder, strife, deceit, malignity; whisperers, "backbiters, hateful to God, insolent, haughty, boastful, (31 inventors of evil things, disobedient to parents, "without understanding, covenant-breakers, without natural affec32 tion, unmerciful: "who, knowing the ordinance of God, that they which practise such things are worthy of death, not only do the same, but also consent with them that practise them.

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Wherefore thou art without excuse, O man, whosoever thou art that judgest: for wherein thou judgest another, thou condemnest thyself; for thou that judgest dost 2 practise the same things. "And we know that the judgement of God is according to truth against them that prac3 tise such things. "And reckonest thou this, O man, who judgest them that practise such things, and doest the 4 same, that thou shalt escape the judgement of God? "Or despisest thou the riches of his goodness and forbearance and longsuffering, not knowing that the goodness of God leadeth thee to repentance? "but after thy hardness and impenitent heart treasurest up for thyself wrath in the day of wrath and revelation of the righteous judgeOr, haters of God



1 Gr. did not approve.
ancient authorities read For.

3 Gr. the other.

4 Many

A. V.—(even).. did change; 27 that which is unseemly.. meet; 28 did not like.. retain..over to..convenient; 29 [fornication]..debate; 30 | haters of ..despiteful, proud, boasters; 31 [implacable]; 32 judgment. . commit.. have pleasure II. I Therefore.. inexcusable..doest; 2 But..are sure.. which commit; 3 thinkest ...that..which do ; 5 unto..against.

6 ment of God; "who will render to every man according 7 to his works: "to them that by patience in well-doing



seek for glory and honour and incorruption, eternal life: (8) "but unto them that are factious, and obey not the truth, but obey unrighteousness, shall be wrath and indignation, "tribulation and anguish, upon every soul of man that Io worketh evil, of the Jew first, and also of the Greek; "but glory and honour and peace to every man that worketh I good, to the Jew first, and also to the Greek: "for there (12 is no respect of persons with God. "For as many as have sinned without law shall also perish without law and as many as have sinned under law shall be judged by law; (13 "for not the hearers of a law are just before God, but (14 the doers of a law shall be justified:("for when Gentiles which have no law do by nature the things of the (15 law, these, having no law, are a law unto themselves; 'in that they shew the work of the law written in their hearts, their conscience bearing witness therewith, and their thoughts one with another accusing or else excusing 16) them; "in the day when God shall judge the secrets of men, according to my gospel, by Jesus Christ.


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But if thou bearest the name of a Jew, and restest upon (18 the law, and gloriest in God, "and knowest his will, and approvest the things that are excellent, being in19 structed out of the law, "and art confident that thou thyself art a guide of the blind, a light of them that are in (20) darkness, a corrector of the foolish, a teacher of babes, having in the law the form of knowledge and of the 21 truth; "thou therefore that teachest another, teachest thou not thyself? thou that preachest a man should not steal,

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Or, accounted righteous Or, reasonings Or, judgeth
Or, the Will Or, provest the things that differ 11 #01,

A. V.-6 deeds; 7 who.. patient continuance.. immortality; 8 contentious..(do); 9 doeth.. Gentile; 10 Gentile; 12 in (the).. (the); 13 [the].. the; 14 (the)..not (the)..contained in..not (the); 15 Which.. (also).. the mean another; 17 | Behold |.. art thy boast of; 18 (more); 19 which; 20 || An instructor ||..(which) hast; 21 which.


22 dost thou steal? "thou that sayest a man should not commit adultery, dost thou commit adultery? thou that ab23 horrest idols, dost thou rob temples? "thou who gloriest in the law, through thy transgression of the law dishon24 Ourest thou God? "For the name of God is blasphemed among the Gentiles because of you, even as it is written. 25 For circumcision indeed profiteth, if thou be a doer of the law but if thou be a transgressor of the law, thy 26) circumcision is become uncircumcision. "If therefore the uncircumcision keep the ordinances of the law, shall not 27 his uncircumcision be reckoned for circumcision? "and shall not the uncircumcision which is by nature, if it fulfil the law, judge thee, who with the letter and circumcision 28 art a transgressor of the law? "For he is not a Jew, which is one outwardly; neither is that circumcision, which is (29 outward in the flesh: 'but he is a Jew, which is one inwardly; and circumcision is that of the heart, in the spirit, not in the letter; whose praise is not of men, but of God.

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What advantage then hath the Jew? or what is the (2 profit of circumcision? "Much every way: first of all, that they were intrusted with the oracles of God. "For what if some were without faith? shall their want of faith make of none effect the faithfulness of God? God forbid: yea, let God be found true, but every man a liar; as it is written,


That thou mightest be justified in thy words,

And mightest prevail when thou comest into judge


5 "But if our unrighteousness commendeth the righteousness of God, what shall we say? Is God unrighteous who visiteth with wrath? (I speak after the manner of 101, commit sacrilege

Or, a law

Gr. Be it not so: and so elsewhere.

A.V.—22 | commit sacrilege; 23 that makest thy boast of..breaking; 24 through; 25 verily..keep..breaker.. made; 26 righteousness..counted; 27 by.. dost transgress; 29 (and).—CH. III. 1 (there); 2 chiefly, [because].. unto them..committed; 3 did not believe.. unbelief.. faith.. without; 4 sayings..overcome.. art judged; 5 commend.. taketh a man.

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