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itself, when that idea is said to be in it: by determinate, when applied to a complex idea, I mean such an one as consists of a determinate number of certain simple or less complex ideas, joined in such a proportion and situation, as the mind has before its view, and sees in itself, when that idea is present in it, or should be present in it, when a man gives a name to it: I say, should be; because it is not every one, not perhaps any one, who is so careful of his language, as to use no word, till he views in his mind the precise determined idea, which he resolves to make it the sign of. The want of this is the cause of no small obscurity and confusion in men's thoughts and discourses.

I know there are not words enough in any language, to answer all the variety of ideas that enter into men's discourses and reasonings. But this hinders not, but that when any one uses any term, he may have in his mind a determined idea, which he makes it the sign of, and to which he should keep it steadily annexed, during that present discourse. Where he does not, or cannot do this, he in vain pretends to clear or distinct ideas: it is plain his are not so; and therefore there can be expected nothing but obscurity and confusion, where such terms are made use of, which have not such a precise determination.

Upon this ground I have thought determined ideas a way of speaking less liable to mistakes, than clear and distinct and where men have got such determined leas of all that they reason, inquire, or argue about, they will find a great part of their doubts and disputes at an end. The greatest part of the questions and controversies that perplex mankind, depending on the doubtful and uncertain use of words, or (which is the same) indetermined ideas, which they are made to stand for; I have made choice of these terms to signify, 1. Some immediate object of the mind, which it perceives and has before it, distinct from the sound it uses as a sign of it. 2. That this idea, thus determined, i. e. which the mind has in itself, and knows, and sees there, be determined without any change to that name, and that name determined to that precise idea. If men had such determined ideas in their inquiries and discourses, they would both discern how far their own inquiries and discourses went, and avoid the greatest part of the disputes and wranglings they have with others.

Besides this, the bookseller will think it necessary I should advertise the reader, that there is an addition of

two chapters wholly new; the one of the association of ideas, the other of enthusiasm. These, with some other larger additions never before printed, he has engaged to print by themselves, after the same manner, and for the same purpose, as was done when this essay had the second impression.

In the sixth edition, there is very little added or altered; the greatest part of what is new, is contained in the 21st chapter of the second book, which any one, if he thinks it worth while, may, with a very little labour, transcribe into the margin of the former edition.

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3. Universal consent proves nothing innate.. 4. What is, is; and, it is impossible for the same thing to be, and not to be not universally assented


5. Not on the mind naturally imprinted, because not known to children, idiots, &c.

6, 7. That men know them when they come to the use of reason, answered. 8. If reason discovered them, that would not prove them innate. 9--11. It is false that reason discovers them.

12. The coming to the use

of reason, not the time we come to know these maxims.

13. By this they are not distinguished from other knowable truths. 14. If coming to the use of reason were the time of their discovery, it would not prove them innate. 15, 16. The steps by which the mind attains several truths, 17. Assenting as soon as proposed and understood proves them not innate. 18. If such an assent be a

mark of innate, then that one and two are equal to three; that sweetness

is not bitterness; and a
thousand the like, must
be inpate.

19. Such less general propo-
tions known before these
universal maxims.

20. One and one equal to
two, &c. not general, nor
useful, answered.

21. These maxims not being
known sometimes till
proposed, proves them
not innate.
22. Implicitly known before
proposing, signifi-s, that
the mind is capable of
understanding them, or
else signifies nothing.
23. The argument of assent-
ing on is first hearing,
upon a false supposition
of no precedent teacher.
24. Not innate, because not
universally assented to.
25. These maxims not the
first known

26. And so not innate.
27. Not innate, because they
appear least, where what
is innate, shows itself

28. Recapitulation.


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but because profitable.
7. Men's actions convince
us, that the rule of vir-
tue is not their internal

8. Conscience no proof of
any innate moral rule.
9. Instances of enormities
practised without re-


10. Men have contrary prac-
tical principles.

11-13. Whole nations reject se-
veral moral rules

14. Those who maintain in-
nate practical principles,
tell us not what they are.
15-19. Lord Herbert's innate
principles examined.
20 Obj. Innate principles
may be corrupted, an-

21. Contrary principles in
the world.

22-26. How men commonly
come by their principles
27. Principles must be exa-


Other considerations about
innate principles, both spe-
culative and practical.


1. Principles not innate, un-
less their ideas be innate,
2, 3. Ideas, especially those
belonging to principles,
not born with children.
4, 5. Identity an idea not in-

6. Whole and part, not in-
nate ideas.

7. Idea of worship not innate.
8-11. Idea of God, not innate-
12. Suitable to God's good-

ness, that all men should
have an idea of him,
therefore naturally im-
printed by him, an

13-16. Ideas of God various
in different men,

17. If the idea of God be

not innate, no other can
be supposed innate.
18. Idea of substance not in-

19. No propositions can be
innate, since no ideas are

20. No ideas are remember-

ed, till after they have

been introduced.

21. Principles not innate, be-
cause of little use or lit-
tle certainty.

22. Difference of men's dis-
coveries depends upon
the different applications
of their faculties.
23. Men must think and

know for themselves.

24. Whence the opinion of

innate principles.

25. Conclusion.

1. Idea is the object of


2. All ideas come from sen-

sation or reflection.
3. The objects of sensation
one source of ideas.
4. The operations of our
minds, the other source
of them.

5. All our ideas are of the

one or the other of these.
6. Observable in children.
7. Men are differently fur-

nished with these, accord-
ing to the different ob-
jects they converse with.
8. Ideas of reflection later,
because they need at-

9. The soul begins to have

ideas, when it begins to


10. The soul thinks not al-
ways; for this wants

11. It is not always conscious

of it.

12. If a sleeping man thinks

without knowing it, the

sleeping and waking man

are two persons.

13. Impossible to convince

those that sleep without

dreaming that theythink.

14. That men dream without

remembering it, in vain

15. Upon this hypothesis the
thoughts ofa sleeping man
ought to be most rational.
16. On this hypothesis the
soul must have ideas not
derived from sensation or
reflection, of which there
is no appearance.
17. If I think when I know
it not, nobody else can
know it

18. How knows any one that
the soul always thinks?
For if it be not a self-evi-
dent proposition, it needs


19. That a man should be busy

in thinking, and yet not

retain it the next mo.
ment, very improbable.

20-23. No ideas but from sensa-

tion, or reflection, evi.
dent, if we observe chil-

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