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18. Thinking and motivity. the primary ideas of spirit. 19-21. Spirits capable of mo.


22. Idea of soul and body


23-27. Cohesion of solid parts in body, as hard to be conceived as thinking in a soul.

28, 29. Communication of motion by impulse or by thought, equally intelligible.

30. Ideas of body and spirit compared

31. The notion of spirit involves no more difficulty in it than that of body. 32. We know nothing beyond our simple ideas,

33-35. Idea of God. 36. No Ideas in our complex ones of spirits, but those got from sensation or rereflection,

37. Recapitulation.

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8. Divine law, the measure of sin and duty.

9. Civil law, the measure of crimes and innocence. 10, 11. Philosophical law, the measure of virtue and vice.

12. Its inforcements, commendation, and discredit. 13. These three laws the rules of moral good and evil. 14, 15. Morality is the relation of actions to these rules. 16. The denominations of ac. tions often mislead us. 17. Relations innumerable. 18. All relations terminate in simple ideas.

19. We have ordinarily as clear (or clearer) notions of the relation, as of its foundation.

20. The notion of the relation is the same, whether the rule, any action is compared to, be true or false,


Of clear and distinct, obscure and confused ideas.


1. Ideas, some clear and distinct, others obscure and confused.

2. Clear and obscure, explained by sight.

3. Causes of obscurity. 4. Distinct and confused what

5. Objection.

6. Confusion of ideas, is in reference to their names. 7. Defaults which make confusion First, complex ideas made up of too few simple ones. 8. Secondly, or its simple ones jumbled disorderly together.

9. Thirdly, or are mutable

or undetermined. 10. Confusion, without reference to names, hardly conceivable.

11. Confusion concerns always two ideas. 12. Causes of confusion. 13. Complex ideas may be distinct in one part, and confused in another. 14. This, if not heeded, causes confusion in our argu ings.

15. Instance in eternity. 16. -Divisibility of mat



Of real and fantastical ideas.


1. Real ideas are conforma. ble to their archetypes. 2. Simple ideas all real. 3. Complex ideas are volun

tary combinations.

4. Mixed modes, made of

consistent ideas, are real. 5. Ideas of substances are real, when they agree with the existence of things.


Of adequate and inadequate ideas.


1. Adequate ideas are such as perfectly represent their archetypes.

2. Simple ideas all adequate..

3. Modes are all adequate. 4, 5. Modes in reference to settled names, may be inadequate.

6, 7. Ideas of substances, as referred to real essences, not adequate. S-11. Ideas of substances, as collections of their quali ties, are all inadequate. 12. Simple ideas, and adequate.

13. Ideas of substances are EXTUT, and inadequate. 14. Ideas of modes and relations are archetypes, and cannot but be adequate.


Of true and false ideas.


1. Truth and falsehood properly belongs to propositions,

2. Metaphysical truth contains a tacit proposition. 3. No idea, as an appearance in the mind, true or false.

4. Ideas referred to any thing may be true or false.

5. Other men's ideas, real existence, and supposed real essences, are what men usually refer their ideas to.

6-8. The cause of such references.

9. Simple ideas may be
false in reference to
others of the same name,
but are least liable to be

10. Ideas of mixed modes
most liable to be false in
this sense.
11. Or at least to be thought

12. And why.

13. As referred to real existences, none of our ideas can be false, but those of substances

14-16. First, Simple ideas in this sense not false, and why.

15. Though one man's idea

of blue should be different from another's. 17. Secondly, Modes not false.

18. Thirdly, Ideas of sub

stances, when false. 19. Truth or falsehood al

ways supposes affirmation or negation. 20. Ideas in themselves neither true nor false. 21. But are false, 1st, when judged agreeable to another man's idea without being so. 22. Secondly, When judged to agree to real existence, when they do not. 23. Thirdly, When judged adequate without being so.

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