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CONTENTS.

I.

SIDON TO BEIRÛT.

Sidon from the North.-Ancient Wall.-Boats drawn up on the Shore.—The Gardens of Sidon.-The Banana-tree.—Nâ'urah, or Water-wheel.-The Aqueduct.-El Auwaly, the Bostrenus.-The Bridge.-Bridges not Mentioned in the Bible.-Bridges in the Time of the Romans.—The Khân.—Migration of an Arab Tribe.-A Winter Storm. -An Officer of Sa'id Beg.-Personal Experience.-A Bridal-party.—The Road from Sidon to Beirût.—Dahar Jûne, the Residence of Lady Hester Stanhope.-The Burial of Lady Hester.-Eccentricities of Lady Hester.-Neby Yûnas, Tomb of Jonah.—The Mother of Samuel.—“ Horned Ladies.”—Biblical Allusions to Horns.-The Story of Jonah and the Whale.—Berja.—El Jiyeh, Porphyreon.—Arabs at a Well-Tattooing, -The Hebrews Forbidden to print Marks upon themselves.-Along the Sandy Beach, and over the Rocky Headlands.-Nükkâr es Sa'diât.—Defeat of Ptolemy's Army by Antiochus.-The Shepherd and the Sheep.-Ed Dâmûr, the Tamyras.-The Mulberry Gardens of Mu'allakah.—Sugar and the Sugar-cane.—The Sweet Cane of the Bible.— "The Burnings of Lime.”—Lime Mentioned Twice in the Bible.-El Bellån, Thorn Bush.—Biblical Allusions to Thorns.-Kaw or Burnt.-Pots and Plots.-" The Crackling of Thorns under a Pot."—Khân Khulda, Heldua.-Ghüfr en Nå'imeh.-One of St. Helena's Towers.—Broken Sarcophagi.—Esh_Shuweifât.—Olive-grove.—Beauty of the Olive-tree.—" Oil out of the Flinty Rock."—Oil-presses.—Grafting.—“ A Olive-tree.”—The Flower of the Olive." The Labor of the Olive."—" The Shaking of an Olive-tree."—The Gleaning of the Olive.—" Thy Children shall be like Oliveplants round about thy Table.”—Dukkân el Kusís.—“A Sea of Sand.”—El Ghüdir. -El Kalabât.—Ibrahim Pasha and the Emir of Shuweifât.-The Goodly Lebanon.— Picturesque Villages.-The Pines.-Arrival at Beirût . . Page 5

11. BEIRUT.

Wild

Beirût and its Surroundings.—The Plain of Beirût.—Goodly Lebanon.-Beirût from the Sea-Beirut not a Biblical City.-History of Beirût.—Colonia Augusta Felix Julia. Berytas.-Herod the Great.-Agrippa.—Titus,—Law School.-Earthquake.—Theo

prosopon.-The Crusaders.-The Saracens.-Miracle of the Holy Cross.-Palace and

Gardens of Fakhr ed Dín.-The Sarâya.-Muhammed 'Aly.-Bombardment of Bei-

rût.— Population of Beirût.- Railroad.— Antiquities about Beirût.— Ancient Aque-

duct.—Tunnel.—The Wife of Haroun er Raschîd.—Ruined Temple at Deir el Kŭ-

l'ah." The Smell of Lebanon."— Magnificent Prospect.-Roofs with Battlements.

-The Holy Land and the Holy Book.-House-tops.-Samuel and Saul.- David's

Palace. The Inhabitants of Jerusalem upon the House-tops.- Proclamations from

the House-tops.—The Year of Jubilee.—Peter Praying upon the House-top.-House-

tops in the Time of Christ.-The Sparrow upon the House-top.-In the Streets of

Beirût.- Coffee and Coffee-shops.—Shopkeepers.— Pipe-stems.-Cigarettes.— The

Letter-writer.-Writing and Writing Materials.-The Open Letter.-Seal Rings.—

The Call to Prayer.-Moslems Praying in the Mosk.-Hypocrisy.-The Pilgrimage to

Mecca. Praying Seven Times a Day.-The Sanctimonious Judge.-Praying towards

Mecca and Jerusalem.-Shops and Streets.-The Crowded Street.-Hewers of Wood

and Drawers of Water.-The Gibeonites.—Shaving the Head.-Paul at Cenchrea.―

Barbers' Shops.-Street of the Auctioneers.-No Provision for Lighting the Streets.

-Bidding the Guests to the Supper.- Dining amongst the Orientals.—Sitting at

Meat.-Rice, Stews, and Meats.-Etiquette at Meals.-Washing the Hands.-Elijah

and Elisha.-Ceremonial Etiquette.-Pipes, Nargîlehs, and Coffee-cups.-Talking to

be Heard. Garments, Ancient and Modern. - Elijah's Mantle. -Joseph's Coat of

Many Colors.-Rending the Clothes.-Linen, Woollen, Cotton, and Silk.-Manners

and Customs.-Boots and Shoes.-Putting off the Shoes.-The Head and the Feet.-

Costume of the Women.- Domestic Relations.-The Harem.-Naming the Father

after his Eldest Son.-Significant Names, Ancient and Modern.-Sleeping without

Change of Garments.- Co-operative House-keeping.-"Saving your Reverence."-

Matrimony.-Sons and Daughters.-Marriage with Slaves.

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CONTENTS.

ix Mr. Maxwell and Mr. Huxley in 1873.-Description of the Caverns of the Dog River. -The Screen.-Professor Robertson's Account.—The Cathedral.—Maxwell's Column. -The Hermit's Pillar.-The Gallery.-The Dome.-Willow Point and Light-house. -The Elephant's Cave.-Bliss's Straits.-The Draperies. -The Pantheon.—Clayton's Passage.-The Styx.—Rustum Pasha's Chandelier.—Chaos.-Huxley and Brigstocke's Rapids.-Personal Incident.-Attempt to Explore the Caverns above the Rapids Described by Professor Robertson.-Temperature of the Air and Water in the Caverns. -Depth of the Water.- The Caves of Nahr el Kelb compared with Celebrated Caverns in other Countries.-Ride up the River Gorge.- The Aqueduct.— Grand and Picturesque Scenery.-The Weir.-The Road over the Tunnel and to the Sea. -Ride around the Western Suburbs of Beirût.-The Barracks and Hospital.—The Capuchin Monastery and Church.-Institute of the Deaconesses.-German Church. -Khân Antûn Beg.-Ottoman Bank.-Consulates.-Post-offices.-Moslem Cemetery. -Hotels.-Remains of Ancient Baths.-Modern Bathing-houses.-Minat el Hüsn.— Sponge Divers.-Petroleum Warehouses.- Ship-building Yard.— Potteries and Tanneres.--Inhabited Well.-The Hospital of St. John.—The Medical Hall. - Syrian Protestant College.-Lee Observatory.-Unequalled Site and Magnificent Prospect.— Jackals and Hyenas.-The Light-house.-Extended Outlook.-French Company.Numerous Inlets.-Deep Caverns.-Seals or Sea-cows.-The Rousha.-Perpendicular Cliffs.-Ibrahim Pasha.-The Conscription.-Refugees.-Fugitives in the Caves and on the Rousha.—The Rousha in a Winter Storm.-Petrified Echini in the Rocks.— The Sand Sea.-Gardens and Houses Overwhelmed by the Sand.—Woe-begone Donkeys.-The Quarries.-Narrow Lanes,-Prickly-pear Hedges.-Fruit of the Pricklypear.-Pine-groves.-Sowing the Pine.-Venerable Pine-trees Planted by Fukhr ed Din.-The Sycamore.—Zaccheus.—Sycamore Figs.-Gatherers of Sycamore Fruit.— The Power of Faith Illustrated by the Sycamore.-The Black Mulberry.-The Syca more in Egypt.- Biblical References to the Sycamore.—'Assûr.— The Cemetery.— The Press-The Bible Warehouse.—Anglo-American Church.—Female Seminary.Mecca Pilgrims.-Fanatical Moslem Dervishes and the Priest of Baal.—The Dousch. -Riding over Prostrate Men and Boys.. .. Page 91

IV.

BEIRUT TO SHEMLÂN.

A Mountain House.-Moving to the Mountains.-Modern Summer Residences. —Lebanon a Favorite Summer Retreat.-Dames de Nazareth.-The Sisters of Charity.— Silk Factory-Cocoons-Export of Silk.-The Pines.-The Damascus Road.-No Trace of an Ancient Highway over Lebanon.—'Âreiya.—El Müghefteh.—Jebel el Kenlsch.-El Bukâ'a.—Shtôra.—Mejdel 'Anjar.—Anti-Lebanon.—Diligences.—Baggage-wagons.—The Carriage-drive.-Canals.-Rustem Pasha's Bridge.- Khán el Ha mlych.-The Plain.—The Palm-tree.—Phœnicia.—Hebrew Women Named after the Palm-tree.-Biblical Allusions to the Palm-tree. — Palm-branches an Emblem of Rejoicing.-Bethany, the House of Dates.—Clusters of Dates.-El Hadeth. — Shehåb Emirs.—As'ad esh Shediak.—History of Lebanon.—B'abda.—Geodes of Quartz.— Blind Beggar by the Way-side.—The Carob-tree.—St. John's Bread.—"The Husks. “

The Land and the Book

OR

BIBLICAL ILLUSTRATIONS DRAWN FROM THE MANNERS
AND CUSTOMS, THE SCENES AND SCENERY, OF

THE HOLY LAND

LEBANON, DAMASCUS

AND

BEYOND JORDAN

BY

WILLIAM M. THOMSON/ D.D.

FORTY-FIVE YEARS A MISSIONARY IN SYRIA AND PALESTINE

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