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Among the five senses, Aristotle distinguishes two as operating by direct contact between Subject and Object (Touch, Taste); three as operating through an external intervening medium (Vision, Smell, Taste). He begins with Vision, which he regards as possessing most completely the nature and characteristics of a Sense.* The direct and proper object of vision is, colour. Now, colour operates upon the eye not immediately; for if the coloured object be placed in contact with the eye, there will be no vision; but by causing movements or perturbations in the external intervening medium, air or water, which affect the sense through an appropriate agency of their own.† This agency is, according to Aristotle, the Diaphanous or Transparent. When actual or in energy, the Transparent is called Light; when potential or in capacity only, it is called Darkness. The eye is of watery structure, apt for receiving these impressions. It is the presence either of fire, or of something analogous to the celestial body, that calls forth the Diaphanous from the state of Potentiality into that of Actuality or Light; in which latter condition it is stimulated by colour. The Diaphanous, whether as Light or as Darkness, is a peculiar nature or accompaniment, not substantive in itself, but inherent chiefly in the First or Celestial Body, yet also in air, water, glass, precious stones, and in all bodies to a greater or less degree.§ The Diaphanous passes at once and simultaneously, in one place as well as in another, from Potentiality to Actu

* Aristot. De Anima, III. 3, 429, a. 2. ἡ ὄψις μάλιστα αἴσθησίς ἐστιν. -Also, Metaphysica, A. init.

+ Aristot. De Animâ, II. 7, 419, a. 12-14-19; Aristot. De Sensu et Sensili, c. 3, 440, a. 18. ὥστ ̓ εὐθὺς κρεῖττον φάναι, τῷ κινεῖσθαι τὸ μεταξὺ τῆς αἰσθήσεως ὑπὸ τοῦ αἰσθητοῦ γίνεσθαι τὴν αἴσθησιν, ἀφῆ καὶ μὴ ταῖς ἀποῤῥοίαις. Ib. c. 2, p. 438, b. 5. εἴτε φῶς εἴτ ̓ ἀήρ ἐστὶ τὸ μεταξὺ τοῦ ὁρωμένου καὶτοῦ ὄμματος, ἡ διὰ τούτου κίνησίς ἐστιν ἡ ποιοῦσα τὸ ὁρᾷν.

+ Aristot. De Anima, II. 7, 419, a. 9. τοῦτο γὰρ ἦν αὐτῷ τὸ χρώματι εἶναι, τὸ κινητικῷ εἶναι τοῦ κατ ̓ ἐνέργειαν διαφανοῦς· ἡ δ ̓ ἐντελέχεια τοῦ διαφανοῦς φῶς ἐστίν. 418, b. 12-17. ὅταν ἡ ἐντελεχείᾳ διαφανές ὑπὸ πυρος ἢ τοιούτου οἷον τὸ ἄνω σῶμα—πυρὸς ἢ τοιούτου τινὸς παρουσία ἐν τῷ διαφανεῖ.

§ Aristot. De Animâ, II. 7, 418, b. 5; De Sensu et Sensili, c. 2, 438, a. 14, b. 7, c. 3, 439, a. 21, seq. ὃ δὲ λέγομεν διαφανές, οὐκ ἔστιν ἴδιον αέρος ἢ ὕδατος, οὐδ ̓ ἄλλου τῶν οὕτω λεγομένων σωμάτων, ἀλλά τίς ἐστὶ κοινὴ φύσις καὶ δύναμις, ἢ χωριστὴ μὲν οὐκ ἔστιν, ἐν τούτοις δ ̓ ἐστὶ καὶ τοῖς ἄλλοις σώμασιν ἐνυπάρχει, τοῖς μὲν μᾶλλον, τοῖς δὲ ἧττον.

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ality-from Darkness to Light. Light does not take time to travel from one place to another, as sound and smell do.* The Diaphanous is not a body, nor effluvia from a body, nor any one of the elements; it is of an adjective character-a certain agency or attribute pervading or belonging to bodies, along with their extension.† Colour marks and defines the surface of the body quá Diaphanous, as figure defines it qua extended. Colour makes the Diaphanous itself visible, and its own varieties visible through the Diaphanous. Air and water are transparent throughout, though with an ill-defined superficial colour. White and black, as colours on solid bodies, correspond to the condition of light or darkness in air. There are some luminous objects visible in the dark, as fire, fungous matter, eyes, and scales of fish, &c., though they have no appropriate colour. There are seven species or varieties of colours, but all of them proceed from white and black, blended in different proportions, or seen one through another; white and black are the two extremes, the other varieties being intermediate between them.

The same necessity for an intervening medium external to the Subject, as in the case of Vision, prevails also in the Senses of Hearing and Smell. If the audible or odorous object be placed in contact with its organ of Sense, there will be no hearing or smell. Whenever we hear or smell any object, there must be interposed between us and the object a suitable medium that shall be affected first; while the organ of Sense will be affected secondarily through that medium. Air is the medium in regard to Sound, both Air and Water in regard to Smell; but there seems besides (analogous to the Transparent in regard to Vision)

* Aristot. De Sensu et Sensili, c. 6, 446, a. 23, seq., b. 27, 447, b. 9. τῷ εἶναι γάρ τι φῶς ἐστὶν, ἀλλ' οὐ κίνησίς τις.—Empedokles affirmed that light travelling from the Sun reached the intervening space before it came to the earth; Aristotle contradicts him.

+ Aristot. De Animâ, II. 7, 418, b. 19. čσTI dè Tò σKÓTOS OTÉρNOIS τῆς τοιαύτης ἕξεως ἐκ διαφανούς, ὥστε δῆλον ὅτι καὶ ἡ τούτου παρουσία pus v.-Aristot. De Sensu et Sensili, c. 3. μev ovv TOû PWTÒS QUOIS ἐν αὀρίστῳ τῷ διαφανεῖ ἔστιν· τοῦ δ ̓ ἐν τοῖς σώμασι διαφανοῦς τὸ ἔσχατον, ὅτι μὲν ἂν εἴη τι, δῆλον· ὅτι δὲ τοῦτο ἔστι τὸ χρῶμα, ἔκ τῶν συμβαινόντων φανερόν—ἔστι μὲν γὰρ ἐν τῷ τοῦ σώματος πέρατι, ἀλλ ̓ οὔτι τὸ τοῦ σώματος πέρας, ἀλλὰ τὴν ἀυτὴν φύσιν δεῖ νομίζειν, ἤπερ καὶ ἔξω χρωματίζεται, ταύτην καὶ ἐντός.

Aristot. De Animâ, II. 7, 419, a. 2-24; Aristot. De Sensu et Sensili, c. 4, 442, a. 21, seven colours.

a special agency called the Trans-Sonant, which pervades air and enables it to transmit Sound; and certainly another special agency called the Trans-Olfacient, which pervades both air and water, and enables them to transmit Smell.* (It seems thus that something like a Luminiferous Ether-extended, mobile, and permeating bodies, yet still incorporeal in itself-was an hypothesis as old as Aristotle; and one other Ether besides, analogous in property and purpose-an Odoriferous Ether; perhaps a third or Soniferous Ether, but this is less distinctly specified by Aristotle).

Sound, according to Aristotle, arises from the shock of two or more solid bodies communicated to the air. It implies local movement in one at least of those bodies. Many soft bodies are incapable of making sound; those best suited for it are such as metals, hard in structure, smooth in surface, hollow in shape. The blow must be smart and quick, otherwise the air slips away and dissipates itself before the sound can be communicated to it.t Sound is communicated through the air to the organ of hearing; the air is one Continuum (not composed of adjacent particles with interspaces), and a wave is propagated from it to the internal ear; which (i.e. the ear) contains some air enclosed in the sinuous ducts within the membrane of the tympanum, congenitally attached to the organ itself, and endued with a certain animation. This internal air within the ear, excited by

*Aristot. De Animâ, II. 7, 419, a. 25-35; De Sensu et Sensili, c. 5, 442, b. 30; Themistius ad Aristot. De Animâ, II. 7-8, p. 115, Spengel. τὸ διαφανές—τὸ διηχές—τὸ δίοσμον. The two last names are not distinctly stated by Aristotle, but are said to have been first applied by Theophrastus after him. See the notes of Trendelenburg and Torstrick; the latter supposes Themistius to have had before him a fuller and better text of Aristotle than that which we now possess, which seems corrupt. In our present text, the Transparent as well as the Trans-olfacient Ether are clearly indicated; the Trans-sonant, not clearly.

+ Aristot. De Animâ, II. 8, 419, b. 10-25. He calls air ψαθυμός εύθρυπτος(420, Α. 1-8). (εὐδιαίρετος εὐόλισθος. Themistius, p. 116, 117, Sp." quod facilé diffluit."-Trendelenburg, Comm., p. 384.) He says that for sonorous purposes, air ought to be depoûv-compact or dense: sound reverberates best from metals with smooth surface-420, a. 25.

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Aristot. De Animâ, II. 8, 419, b. 34, 420, a. 5. οὗτος δ ̓ ὁ ἀήρ) ἐστὶν ὁ ποιῶν ἀκούειν, ὅταν κινὴθὴ συνεχὴς καὶ εἶν ψοφητικὸν μὲν οὖν τὸ κινητικὸν ἑνὸς ἀέρος συνεχείᾳ μέχρις ἀκοῆς, ἀήρ· διὰ δὲ τὸ ἐν ἀέρι εἶναι, κινουμένου τοῦ ἐξω τὸ

ἀκοῇ δὲ συμφνὴς εἴσω κινεῖ. διόπερ

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the motion propagated from the external ear, causes hearing. The ear is enabled to appreciate accurately the movements of the external air, because it has itself little or no movement within. We cannot hear with any other part of the body; because it is only in the ear that nature has given us this stock of internal air. If water gets into the ear, we cannot hear at all; because the wave generated in the air without, cannot propagate itself within. Nor can we hear if the membrane of the ear be disordered; any more than we can see when the membrane of the eye is disordered.*

Voice is a kind of sound peculiar to animated beings; yet not belonging to all of them, but only to those that inspire the air. Nature employs respiration for two purposes; the first, indispensable to animal life-that of cooling and tempering the excessive heat of the heart and its adjacent parts; the second, not indispensable to life, yet most valuable to the higher faculties of man -significant speech. The organ of respiration is the larynx; a man cannot speak either when inspiring or expiring, but only when retaining and using the breath within. The Soul in those parts, when guided by some phantasm or thought, impels the air within against the walls of the trachea, and this shock causes vocal sounds.+

Aristotle seems to have been tolerably satisfied with the above explanations of Sight and Hearing; for in approaching the Sense of Smell with the Olfacients, he begins by saying that it is less definable and explicable. Among the five senses, Smell stands

οὐ πάντῃ τὸ ζῶον ἀκούει, οὐδὲ πάντη διέρχεται ὁ ἀὴρ· οὐ γὰρ πάντη ἔχει ἀέμα τὸ κινησόμενον μέρος καὶ ἔμψυχον-διὰ τὰς ἔλικας-420, Α. 13. The text of this passage is not satisfactory. It has been much criticised as well as amended by Torstrick-see his Comment., p. 148 or 151. cannot approve his alteration of έμψυχον into ἔμψοφον.


* Aristot. De Animâ, II. 8, 420, a. 10. o d' év Toîs woìv ¿ykatwkoδόμηται πρὸς τὸ ἀκίνητος εἶναι, ὅπως ἀκριβῶς αἰσθάνηται πάσας τὰς διαφορὰς τῆς κινήσεως.—420, a. 14. οὐδ ̓ (ἀκούομεν) ἂν ἡ μήνιγξ κάμη, ὥσπερ τὸ ἐπὶ τῇ κόρη δέρμα ὅταν κάμῃ.

ὥστε ἡ

+ Aristot. De Animâ, II. 8, 420, b. 5-16-25-32, 421, a. 2. πληγὴ τοῦ ἀναπνεομένου ἀέρος ὑπὸ τῆς ἐν τούτοις τοῖς μορίοις ψυχῆς φωνή ἐστιν. Οὐ γὰρ πᾶς ζώου ψόφος φωνή, καθαπερ εἴπομεν, (ἔστι γὰρ καὶ τῇ γλώττῃ ψοφεῖν καὶ ὡς οἱ βήττοντες) ἀλλὰ δεῖ ἔμψυχόν τε εἶναι τὸ τύπτον καὶ μετὰ φαντασίας τινός· σημαντικὸς γὰρ δή τις ψόφος ἔστιν ἡ φωνὴ· καὶ οὐ τοῦ ἀναπνεομένου αέρος, ὥσπερ ἡ βὴξ, ἀλλὰ τούτῳ τύπτει τὸν ἐν τῇ ἀρτηρίᾳ πρὸς αὐτήν.

intermediate between the two (Taste and Touch) that operate by direct contact, and the other two (Sight and Hearing) that operate through an external medium. Man is below other animals in this sense; he discriminates little in smells except the pleasurable and the painful.* His taste, though analogous in many points to smell, is far more accurate and discriminating, because taste is a variety of touch; and in respect to touch, man is the most discriminating of all animals. Hence his great superiority to them in practical wisdom. Indeed the marked difference of intelligence between one man and another, turns mainly upon the organ of touch; men of hard flesh (or skin) are by nature dull in intelligence, men of soft flesh are apt and clever. The classifying names of different smells are borrowed from the names of the analogous tastes to which they are analogous-sweet, bitter, tart, dry, sharp, smooth, &c.‡ Smells take effect through air as well as through water; by means of a peculiar agency or accompaniment (mentioned above, called the Trans-Olfacient) pervading both one and the other. It is peculiar to man that he cannot smell except when inhaling air in the act of inspiration; any one may settle this for himself by making the trial.§ But fishes and other aquatic animals, who never inhale air, can smell in the water; and this proves that the trans-olfacient agency is operative to transmit odours not less in water than in air. We know that the sense of smell in these aquatic animals is the same as it is in man, because the same strong odours that are destructive to man are also destructive to them.T Smell is the parallel, and in a certain sense the antithesis of taste; smell is of the dry, taste is

* Aristot. De Animâ, II. 9, 421, a. 7-12; Aristot. De Sensu et Sensili, c. 5, 445, a. 6, c. 4, 441, a. 1; De Partibus Animal., II. 2. 656, a. 31, 657, a. 9.

+ Aristot. De Animâ, II. 9, 421, a. i7-27. Kaτà dè tỷv áþýv woλlậ τῶν ἄλλων ζώων διαφερόντως ἀκριβοῖ (ὁ ἄνθρωπος)· διὸ καὶ φρονι μώτατόν ἐστι τῶν ζώων. σημεῖον δὲ τὸ καὶ ἐν τῷ γένει τῶν ἀνθρώπων παρὰ τὸ αἰσθητήριον τοῦτο εἶναι εὐφνεῖς καὶ ἀφνεῖς, παρ ̓ ἄλλο δὲ μηδέν· οἱ μὲν γὰρ σκληρόσαρκοι ἀφυεῖς τὴν διάνοιαν, οἱ δὲ μαλακόσαρκοι εὐφνεῖς.

Aristot. De Animâ, II. 9, 421, a. 27-32.

§ Aristot. De Anima, II. 9, 421, b. 9-19. To aveu Toc ÎvQT YÊU HÌ αἰσθάνεσθαι, ἴδιον ἐπὶ τῶν ἀνθρώπων· δῆλον δὲ πειρωμένοις. Ηθ seems to think that this is not true of any animal other than man.

Aristot. De Sensu et Sensili, c. 5, 443, a. 3-31, 444, b. 9.

Aristot. De Animâ, II. 9, 421, b. 24. He instances brimstone, άσφαλτος, &c.

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