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Where, in all the seventeenth century, among the entire Christian church, was cherished the faith of an intervening temporal Millennium, such as many Protestants at the present time vainly expect? Assuredly the thought is worthy of our solemn and candid consideration, that from the days. of the apostles up to this period, Post-millennialism had nowhere an existence! And can it then be the truth? Is it possible that that is the doctrine of Christ and his apostles, which was never heard of in the church till sixteen hundred years from the time of their preaching? Can it be that that which was condemned and accounted as a heresy for the first sixteen centuries of the Christian era, is really the truth? Can it be that that of which the immediate successors of the apostles were ignorant, and upon which they were silent, has now come to be the doctrine of the prophets and apostles?

Church of Christ in the nineteenth century, ponder these questions! Watchman on Zion's walls, ponder these questions! and take heed lest while dreaming of a golden age of mercy, you see the gleaming of the sword of justice. Watch! lest in the midst of Peace and Safety sudden destruction overtake a sinful world, and their blood be required at the hand of the slumbering watchman.



"To him that overcometh, will I grant to sit with me in my throm even as I also overcame, and am set down with my Father in his throne." -Rev. 3: 21.

THIS century is distinguished for the rise of a new Millen

nial theory-viz., the Whitbyan; a theory that we are of opinion, were there no other argument, finds its own successful refutation in the admitted fact that Pre-millennialism, its opposite, was believed an 1 taught by the early Church and all "the best of Christians for 250 years as a tradition apos tolical." The admission is Whitby's, and is fatal to his scheme. By the rule of Faber, given in another place, Postmillennialism is a 66 mere human invention," and, to use the language of this venerable divine, "with whatever plausibility it may be fetched out of a particular interpretation of Scripture, and with whatever practical piety on the part of its advocates, it may be attended, we cannot evidentially admit it to be part and parcel of the divine revelation of Christianity." But the doctrine of a personal reign still had its advocates, and the great names of the age were on its side. We invite special attention to the evidence given in this, as also in preceding centuries, that the early founders and creed-makers of the present existing evangelical denominations were mostly Pre-millennialists. Such were the Baptists of King Charles' time-the noble assembly of West

* Doctrine of Election, p. 159.



minster divines, and later among the Methodists, Toplady, Fletcher, Charles Wesley, &c.; and the concessions of John Wesley, Dr. A. Clarke, and also Whitefield, are not a few; Dr. Clarke affirming that "probably no such time shall ever appear in which evil shall be wholly banished from the earth, till after the day of judgment, when the earth having been burned up, a new heavens and a new earth shall be produced out of the ruins of the old by the mighty power of God"*-Whitefield declaring that the Church will suffer persecution in Henry's language "till the end of time,” and the others admitting a cardinal doctrine of our faithnamely, the earth's renovation, and eternal possession by the meek.

Not only did Pre-millennialism find advocates among the great lights of the Church," but it also enlisted astronomers, philosophers, nobles, and poets in its defense. The names of Sir Isaac Newton, Tycho Brahe, Lord Napier, Cowper, Heber, and Watts, as well as those of Bishops Horsely, Newton, Clayton, Newcome, &c., are not to be despised by the divines of the nineteenth century. "But time would fail to speak" of all-even Rome contributing her single testimony to the truth.

And who can resist the arguments of a Fletcher, a Gill, and a Spaulding, or the pious longings of a Doddridge, a Mather, or the holy impatience of the "seraphic Rutherford," who would fain "shovel time and days out of the way," and bring "that day, for which all other days were, made ?" O Christian! love your Lord's appearing! With Gill, we urge you to "be hastening in your warm affections and earnest desires after those glorious times, and in the darkest season look for the morning," and harmonious with the prayer, "Thy kingdom come," let your cry be with Milton, "Come forth out of thy royal chambers, O Prince of all the Kings of the earth!"

*Comments on Rev. 20th and 21st.

FLEMING, A. D. 1700.

Robert Fleming, Jr., was born in Scotland, in the seven. teenth century. He was minister at Leyden and Rotter dam, and afterwards of the Presbyterian Church at Loth bury, Scotland; was distinguished for his piety and learning, and as the author of a work on the rise and fall of the Papacy, in which, among other things, he calculated the humiliation of the French monarchy in the close of the eighteenth century, about 1794, remarking that "we may justly suppose that that monarchy, after it has scorched others, will itself consume, by doing so, wasting insensibly till it be exhausted as one of the chief supporters of Antichrist"-a prediction which, when Louis XVI. was about to perish on the scaffold, was remembered, and produced a thrilling sensation in Great Britain. He looked also for the commencement of the downfall of the Papal power in 1848, the judgment of the fifth vial which was to be poured upon the seat of the Beast, or the dominions that belong to it, and depend on the Roman See, beginning in the year of France's humiliation, and expiring at this time. "But yet," he says, (6 we are not to imagine that this vial will totally destroy the Papacy, (though it will exceedingly weaken it, for we find this still in being and alive when the next vial is poured out."* From 1848 to 2000 he looked for the decay of the Papacy, and finally for its entire destruction at the date last mentioned, when he says the 6000 years will end, and the Millennium com'mence. He dates the rise of Antichrist at the decree of Phocas, A. D. 606, and says, "If we may suppose that Antichrist began his reign in the year 606, the additional 1260 years of his duration, were they Julian or ordinary years, would lead us down to the year 1866, as the last period of the seven-headed monster; but seeing they are prophetical years only, we must cast away eighteen years in order to

"Rise and Fall of the Papacy," p. 70.



bring them to the exact measure of time that the Spirit of God designs in this book; and thus the final period of Papal usurpations, (supposing that he did indeed rise in 606,) must conclude with the year 1848."

We give these calculations of Fleming as being of some interest and for what they are worth. After stating that the "militant state of the Christian church will run out in the year 2000, and the glorious sabbatical Millennary then begin," he says, "Christ himself will appear in his glory and destroy his enemies with fire from heaven, which denotes the great conflagration in 2 Pet. 3: 10, &c., which is followed with the resurrection and Christ's calling men before him into judgment. And perhaps the time of this judgment will take up the greatest part of the whole of another Millennary of years; that as there were four thousand years from the creation to his first coming, there may be four from thence to his triumphal entry into heaven with all his saints; for though the Scriptures call this time a day, yet we know what Peter says—that a thousand years and a day are the same thing in a divine reckoning. That all men that ever lived should be publicly judged in a day, or year, or century, so as to have all their life and actions tried and searched into, is to me, I confess, inconceivable; not indeed in relation to God, but in relation to men and angels, who must be convinced of the equity of the procedure and sentence of the Judge." On Rev. 20th, he hints that "the first resurrection" might be a revival of the Jewish Church, but in his Christology he corrects himself, and maintains that this is "a real and corporeal resurrection of the apostles and other most eminent saints of the New Testament, who died before the Millennium began," thus interpreting it, as he also does Dan. 12: 2, in a literal sense. Fleming departed this life at London

in 1716.

* Rise and Fall, p. 85. † Ibid, p. 41. + Christology, pp. 36, 40.

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