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1. In jure non remota causa, sed proxima spectatur.
2. Non potest adduci exceptio ejusdem rei, cujus petitur disso
3. Verba fortius accipiuntur contra proferentem.
4. Quod sub certa forma concessum vel reservatum est, non trahitur ad valorem vel compensationem.
5. Necessitas inducit privilegium quoad jura privata.
6. Corporalis injuria non recipit æstimationem de futuro.
7. Excusat aut extenuat delictum in capitalibus, quod non operatur idem in civilibus.
8. Estimatio præteriti delicti ex post facto nunquam crescit. 9. Quod remedio destituitur ipsa re valet, si culpa absit.
10. Verba generalia restringuntur ad habilitatem rei vel personæ. 11. Jura sanguinis nullo jure civili dirimi possunt.
12. Receditur a placitis juris potius quam injuriæ et delicta maneant impunita.
13. Non accipi debent verba in demonstrationem falsam, quæ competunt in limitationem veram.
14. Licet dispositio de interesse futuro sit inutilis, tamen potest fieri declaratio præcedens quæ sortiatur effectum interveniente novo actu.
15. In criminalibus sufficit generalis malitia intentionis cum facto paris gradus.
16. Mandata licita recipiunt strictam interpretationem, sed illicita latam et extensam.
17. De fide et officio judicis non recipitur quæstio, sed de scientia,
sive error sit juris sive facti.
18. Persona conjuncta æquiparatur interesse proprio.
19. Non impedit clausula derogatoria quominus ab eadem potestate res dissolvantur a quibus 1 constituuntur.
20. Actus inceptus cujus perfectio pendet ex voluntate partium revocari potest; si autem pendet ex voluntate tertiæ personæ, vel ex contingenti, revocari non potest.
21. Clausula vel dispositio inutilis per præsumptionem remotam vel causam ex post facto non fulcitur.
22. Non videtur consensum retinuisse, si quis ex præscripto minantis aliquid immutavit.
23. Licita bene miscentur, formula nisi juris obstet.
24. Præsentia corporis tollit errorem nominis, et veritas nominis tollit errorem demonstrationis.
25. Ambiguitas verborum latens verificatione suppletur; nam quod ex facto oritur ambiguum verificatione facti tollitur.
1 So, I believe, in all the MSS. and editions, and therefore the slip is probably of Bacon's pen.
MAXIMS OF THE LAW.
In jure non remota causa, sed proxima spectatur.
Ir were infinite for the law to judge the causes of causes, and their impulsions one of another: therefore it contenteth itself with the immediate cause; and judgeth of acts by that, without looking to any further degree.
As if an annuity be granted pro consilio 6 H. 8. impenso et impendendo, and the grantee com- Dy. f. 1, 2. mit treason, whereby he is imprisoned, so that the grantor cannot have access unto him for his counsel; yet, nevertheless, the annuity is not determined by this non-feasance. Yet it was the grantee's act and default to commit the treason, whereby the imprisonment grew: but the law looketh not so far, but excuseth him, because the not giving counsel was compulsory and not voluntary, in regard of the imprisonment.
Litt. secs. 643.
2 H. 4. f. 5. pl. 18.
So if a parson make a lease, and be deprived, or resign, the successor shall avoid the lease: and yet the cause of deprivation, 28 H. 8. 1. 2. and more strongly of a resignation, moved pl. 8. from the party himself: but the law regardeth not
that; because the admission of the new incumbent is the act of the ordinary.'
5 H. 7. f. 35. pl. 3.
2 So if I be seised of an advowson in gross, and a usurpation be had against me, and at the next avoidance I usurp arere, I shall be remitted: and yet the presentation, which is the act remote, is mine own act; but the admission of my clerk, whereby the inheritance is reduced to me, is the act of the ordinary.
So if I covenant with I. S. a stranger, in consideration of natural love to my son, to stand seised to the use of the said I. S. to the intent he shall enfeoff my son; by this no use ariseth to I. S. because the law doth respect that there is no immediate consideration between me and I. S.
Dy. f. 1.
12 H. 4. f. 23. pl. 6.
3 So if I be bound to enter into a statute
before the mayor of the staple at such a day for the security of a hundred pounds, and the obligee, before the day, accept of me a lease of a house in satisfaction; this is no plea in debt upon my obligation: and yet the end of that statute was but security of money; but because the entering into this statute itself, which is the immediate act whereto I am bound, is a corporal act which lieth not in satisfaction, therefore the law taketh no consideration that the remote intent was for money.
So if I make a feoffment in fee upon concase, 2 Co. 59. dition that the feoffee shall enfeoff over, and the feoffee be disseised, and a descent cast, and
4 [37 El. Chester.]
1 The Cambridge MS. states the law as to deprivation only; adding: "But of a resignation it is otherwise; for that is merely the act of the party."
2 Omitted in Camb. MS.
8 Omitted in Camb. MS.
4 This marginal reference must have been made, I think, while the case