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That either William of Deloraine

Will cleanse him, by oath, of march-treason stain,1 Or else he will the combat take

'Gainst Musgrave, for his honour's sake.

No knight in Cumberland so good,

But William may count with him kin and blood.
Knighthood he took of Douglas' sword,2
When English blood swell'd Ancram's ford; 3
And but Lord Dacre's steed was wight,
And bare him ably in the flight,
Himself had seen him dubb'd a knight.
For the young heir of Branksome's line,
God be his aid, and God be mine;
Through me no friend shall meet his doom;
Here, while I live, no foe finds room.
Then, if thy Lords their purpose urge,
Take our defiance loud and high;
Our slogan is their lyke-wake dirge,

Our moat, the grave where they shall lie."

In dubious cases, the innocence of Border criminals was occasionally referred to their own oath. The form of excusing bills, or indictments, by Border-oath, ran thus: "You shall swear by heaven above you, hell beneath you, by your part of Paradise, by all that God made in six days and seven nights, and by God himself, you are whart out sackless of art, part, way, witting, ridd, kenning, having, or recetting of any of the goods and cattels named in this bill. So help you God."— History of Cumberland, Introd. p. xxv.

"See Appendix, Note E 2.

The battle of Ancram Moor, or Penielheuch, was fought A. D. 1545. The English, commanded by Sir Ralph Evers, and Sir Brian Latoun, were totally routed, and both their leaders slain in the action. The Scottish army was commanded by Archibald Douglas, Earl of Angus, assisted by the Laird of Buc. cleuch and Norman Lesley.


Lyke-wake, the watching a corpse previous to interment.


Proud she look'd round, applause to claim-
Then lighten'd Thirlestane's eye of flame;
His bugle Wat of Harden blew;
Pensils and pennons wide were flung,
To heaven the Border slogan rung,
"St. Mary for the young Buccleuch !"
The English war-cry answer'd wide,
And forward bent each southern spear;
Each Kendal archer made a stride,

And drew the bowstring to his ear;
Each minstrel's war-note loud was blown ;-
But, ere a gray-goose shaft had flown,
A horseman gallop'd from the rear.


"Ah! noble Lords!" he breathless said,
"What treason has your march betray'd?
What make you here, from aid so far,
Before you walls, around you war?
Your foemen triumph in the thought,
That in the toils the lion's caught.
Already on dark Ruberslaw

The Douglas holds his weapon-schaw;'
The lances, waving in his train,

Clothe the dun heath like autumn grain;
And on the Liddel's northern strand,
To bar retreat to Cumberland,

Lord Maxwell ranks his merry-men good,
Beneath the eagle and the rood;


Weapon-schaw, the military array of a county.

And Jedwood, Eske, and Teviotdale,
Have to proud Angus come;
And all the Merse and Lauderdale
Have risen with haughty Home.
An exile from Northumberland,

In Liddesdale I've wander'd long; But still my heart was with merry England, And cannot brook my country's wrong; And hard I've spurr'd all night, to show The mustering of the coming foe."—


"And let them come!" fierce Dacre cried;
"For soon yon crest, my father's pride,
That swept the shores of Judah's sea,
And waved in gales of Galilee,

From Branksome's highest towers. display'd,
Shall mock the rescue's lingering aid!-
Level each harquebuss on row;

Draw, merry archers, draw the bow;

Up, bill-men, to the walls, and cry,
Dacre for England, win or die!"—


"Yet hear," quoth Howard, "calmly hear, Nor deem my words the words of fear: For who, in field or foray slack,

Saw the blanche lion e'er fall back?1

1 This was the cognizance of the noble house of Howard in all its branches. The crest, or bearing, of a warrior, was often used as a nomme de guerre. Thus Richard III. acquired his wellknown epithet, The Boar of York. In the violent satire on Cardinal Wolsey, written by Roy, commonly, but erroneously

But thus to risk our Border flower

In strife against a kingdom's power,

Ten thousand Scots 'gainst thousands three,
Certes, were desperate policy.

Nay, take the terms the Ladye made,
Ere conscious of the advancing aid:
Let Musgrave meet fierce Deloraine1

imputed to Dr. Bull, the Duke of Buckingham is called the Beautiful Swan, and the Duke of Norfolk, or Earl of Surrey, the White Lion. As the book is extremely rare, and the whole passage relates to the emblematic interpretation of heraldry, it shall be here given at length.

"The Description of the Armes.

"Of the proud Cardinal this is the shelde,
Borne up between two angels of Sathan;
The six bloudy axes in a bare felde,
Sheweth the cruelte of the red man,
Which hath devoured the Beautiful Swan,
Mortal enemy unto the Whyte Lion,
Carter of Yorke, the vyle butcher's sonne.
The six bulles heddes in a felde blacke,
Betokeneth his sturdy furiousness,
Wherefore, the godly lyght to put abacke,
He bryngeth in his dyvlish darcness;

The bandog in the middes doth expresse
The mastiff curre bred in Ypswich towne,
Gnawynge with his teth a kinges crowne.
The cloubbe signifieth playne his tiranny,
Covered over with a Cardinal's hatt,
Wherein shall he fulfilled the prophecy,
Aryse up, Jacke, and put on thy salatt,
For the tyme is come of bagge and walatt.

The temporall chevalry thus thrown doune,

Wherefor, prest, take hede, and beware thy crowne."

There were two copies of this very scarce satire in the library of the late John, Duke of Roxburghe. See an account of it also in Sir Egerton Brydges' curious miscellany, the Censura Literaria.

'See Appendix, Note F 2.

In single fight, and, if he gain,
He gains for us; but if he's cross'd,
'Tis but a single warrior lost:
The rest, retreating as they came,
Avoid defeat, and death, and shame."


Ill could the haughty Dacre brook
His brother Warden's sage rebuke.
And yet his forward step he staid,
And slow and sullenly obey'd.
But ne'er again the Border side
Did these two lords in friendship ride;
And this slight discontent, men say,
Cost blood upon another day.


The pursuivant-at-arms again

Before the castle took his stand;
His trumpet call'd, with parleying strain,
The leaders of the Scottish band;

And he defied, in Musgrave's right,
Stout Deloraine to single fight;
A gauntlet at their feet he laid,
And thus the terms of fight he said:-
"If in the lists good Musgrave's sword
Vanquish the Knight of Deloraine,
Your youthful chieftain, Branksome's Lord,
Shall hostage for his clan remain:
If Deloraine foil good Musgrave,
The boy his liberty shall have.

Howe'er it falls, the English band,
Unharming Scots, by Scots unharm❜d,
In peaceful march, like men unarm'd
Shall straight retreat to Cumberland.

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