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THE INTERNATIONAL EDUCATION series.—(Continued.)

Vol. X.-HOW TO STUDY GEOGRAPHY. A Practical Exposition of

Methods and Devices in Teaching Geography which apply the Principles and
Plans of Ritter and Guyot. BY FRANCIS W. PARKER, Principal of the Cook
County (Illinois) Normal School. Price, $1 50.

Vol. XI.-EDUCATION IN THE UNITED STATES: Its History from the Earliest Settlements. By RICHARD G. Boone, A. M., Professor of Pedagogy in Indiana University. Price, $1.50.

Vol. XII.--EUROPEAN SCHOOLS; or, What I Saw in the Schools of Germany, France, Austria, and Switzerland. By L. R. KLEMM, Ph. D., Principal of the Cincinnati Technical School, author of "Chips from a Teacher's Workshop," etc. Fully illustrated. Price, $2.00.

Vol. XIII.-PRACTICAL HINTS FOR THE TEACHERS OF PUBLIC SCHOOLS. By GEORGE HOWLAND, Superintendent of the Chicago Public Schools. Price, $1.00.

Vol. XIV. PESTALOZZI: His Life and Work. By ROGER De Guimps. Authorized translation from the second French edition, by J. RUSSELL, B. A., Assistant Master in University College, London. With an Introduction by Rev. R. H. QUICK, M. A. Price, $1.50.

Vol. XV.-SCHOOL SUPERVISION. By J. L. PICKARD, LL. D. Price, $1.00. Vol. XVI.-HIGHER EDUCATION OF WOMEN IN EUROPE. By Helene Lange, Berlin. Translated and accompanied by comparative statistics by L. R. KLEMM. Price, $1.00.

Vol. XVII.-ESSAYS ON EDUCATIONAL REFORMERS. By Robert HERBERT QUICK, M. A., Trinity College, Cambridge; formerly Assistant Master at Harrow, and Lecturer on the History of Education at Cambridge; late Vicar of Ledbergh. Only authorized edition of the work as rewritten in 1890. Price, $1.50.

Vol. XVIII.-A TEXT-BOOK IN PSYCHOLOGY. AN ATTEMPT TO FOUND THE SCIENCE OF PSYCHOLOGY ON EXPERIENCE, METAPHYSICS, AND MATHEMATICS. By JOHANN FRIEDRICH HERBART. Translated from the original German by Margaret K. SMITH, Teacher in the State Normal School at Oswego, New York. Price, $1.00.

Vol. XIX.-PSYCHOLOGY APPLIED TO THE ART OF TEACHING. By Dr. JOSEPH BALDWIN. Price, $1.50.

Vol. XX.-ROUSSEAU'S ÉMILE. By W. H. PAYNE. Price, $1.50.

Vol. XXI.-ETHICAL TRAINING IN SCHOOLS. BY FELIX ADler.
Vol. XXII.-English EDUCATION IN THE ELEMENTARY AND
SECONDARY SCHOOLS. BY ISAAC SHARPLESS, LL. D. Price, $1.00.
Vol. XXIII.-EDUCATION FROM A NATIONAL STANDPOINT. By
ALFRED FOUILLÉE. Price, $1.50.

Circular, describing the volumes more in detail, mailed to any address on request.

New York: D. APPLETON & CO., Publishers, 1, 3, & 5 Bond Street.

ENGLISH EDUCATION

IN THE ELEMENTARY AND

SECONDARY SCHOOLS

BY

ISAAC SHARPLESS, Sc. D., LL.D.

PRESIDENT OF HAVERFORD COLLEGE, PENNSYLVANIA

NEW YORK

D. APPLETON AND COMPANY

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EDITOR'S PREFACE.

ACCORDING to our classification of educational books in this series, the present work falls in the first division, under the History of Education.

There are no two nations on exactly the same road, politically or educationally. Hence it is important for the director of schools to clearly understand its national point of view before he attempts to pass judgment on the fitness of a school system or proposes to transplant it to his own country.

England stands in the world-history for the originator of the political system of local self-government. It is a historic growth, and not a theoretical invention hatched in the minds of statesmen or political philosophers. Each of the constituent peoples in the combination-Celt, Roman, Angle, Saxon, Dane, and Norman-was so stubborn as to be invincible within some last citadel of its own, and the struggle for dominion had to end in a compromise. In a compromise two wills are united and victorious; each respects the other and adopts it as its own to a certain extent. In an absolute conquest only one will remains dominant, while one is destroyed.

Out of a manifold compromise arose the British Constitution, each element of the population having

a sphere of self-government within which it was left absolute.

This fact explains the survival of the caste system in England in a form different from that found on the Continent of Europe. In England caste is a means of personal freedom; on the Continent it is a means of oppression. The walls of caste in England. are the terms of mutual compromise in which the parties struggling for dominance have finally agreed to recognize one another's invincible might. In France, Italy, Germany, and Austria the lines of caste, except where municipal corporations have secured recognition by military resistance to arbitrary power, are lines not of acknowledged might but of grace conceded by the higher power to the vassal.

Hence we see on the Continent a degree of centralization not possible in England or in English colonies. The local governments in France and Germany hold their powers not by some ancient constitution of the realm, but by the concession of the central power as it now exists.

Witness the central control of the educational systems of France, Belgium, Germany, Austria, Italy, and Spain! And in what contrast to these stands the English system!

In England not only do all the people possess original rights and powers, but every institution, every piece of property, every franchise, and every existing custom, good or bad, are permitted and expected to claim their privileges and resist aggression. This resistance may appear, first, in the securing of representation in the national Parliament; or, secondly, in the

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