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and in leading to a better understanding of the laws which control mind and its products.

Archæology.The study of the monuments, utensils, and weapons made by man carries the mind back still farther into antiquity, back beyond chronology, beyond philology, and beyond every evidence of man's existence, except that which is afforded by the most imperishable materials upon which the labor of man has been spent. From our homes and from modern cities, furnished with all the materials of present civilization, we travel over the familiar ground of chronology, finding cities, and temples, and pyramids; and beneath the crumbling ruins of great cities described in ancient lore, we find the ruins of other cities of which even tradition is silent. Still going back, step by step, we find the evidences of human art continually becoming less, until the rude arrow-head of the primitive man terminates investigation by archæological means, and marks the disappearance of any intelligence sufficient to leave an enduring evidence of human existence.

What is Gained. The study of these various phases of history puts man in possession of the past of humanity, back to the dawn of intelligence, and shows what elements enter into his individual being, and into the civilization of the race. This knowledge not only gratifies the natural curiosity in regard to the past, but is a necessity in putting man in the complete possession of his powers, and in enabling him to comprehend the tendency of existence, so as to be able to adjust himself to its perpetually varying conditions.

This study, so varied and profound, belongs to the advanced course of instruction, and is available only

when a broad foundation of physical knowledge has been laid in the primary course. It supplements the physical sciences, and furnishes a field for thought and investigation full of the promise of fruit.

FOREIGN LANGUAGES.-The study of a foreign language may be pursued for either one of three legitimate purposes: The possession of additional means for acquiring and expressing knowledge; the knowledge found in the literature of the language; and the help which the language gives to philological research. As mental development is incident to all study pursued by proper methods, its consideration as the special object of linguistic study is not entertained.

Elementary Study.-All elementary study of a foreign language must be for the purpose of becoming acquainted with its structure and idioms, and with the meaning of its words. It furnishes the mind with no real knowledge, but simply puts it in possession of the implements by which knowledge may be acquired. As a means, this study is valuable; as an end, comparatively valueless. Carried to the point of mastery, it furnishes means of communication which may be used for valuable purposes; stopping short of this point, the time spent in its pursuit would bear much better fruit if given to the study of the vernacular, perfecting the use of one tongue, rather than obtaining a smattering of

many.

Foreign Literature.-The study of a foreign language, when pursued for the purpose of gaining an acquaintance with the literature which the language contains, produces fruit in the form of development and

culture. Such study belongs to the advanced course. To a critical appreciation of the finest literary productions of a people, an acquaintance with the language is doubtless a necessity; but science and philosophy can be obtained equally well from translations, and even the purely literary works can be better appreciated through a good translation, than by their study in the original, when their language is imperfectly mastered. In home dress, English scholars may come in possession of the best thought of the world wherever it may originate. In poetry, and in the prose where form is an essential element, there will be loss in translation; but this loss may be compensated wholly, or in part, by the study of the English masters in these departments of literature.

Comparative Philology.-Linguistic study, pursued for the purpose of throwing light upon human history, and of discovering the laws and evolution of language itself, belongs to the higher and professional courses of instruction. It does not constitute the basis of culture, but rather it completes the superstructure in one direction.

THE ANCIENT LANGUAGES.-It is not designed here to enter into the controversies that have risen respecting the relative advantages of the ancient languages on the one hand, and of mathematics and the natural sciences on the other; but the scope of the discussion demands that the claims of the former, as the exclusive basis of culture, should receive examination.

Advantages Claimed.-The advantages claimed for the study of the Latin and Greek languages are: That there can be no complete or broad learning except through

these branches, which have been honored by the use of centuries in all the great schools of instruction, and have constituted a prominent agency in the culture of educated men for many generations; that a broad culture must embrace an acquaintance with the life and thought of antiquity; that, by requiring patient and prolonged attention, they confer a severe mental discipline; that the act of translating into the vernacular cultivates discrimination in the use of language; that a familiar acquaintance with the ancient classics is necessary to an exact knowledge of all modern languages.

Difficulties Encountered.-Admitting that a thorough acquaintance with the Greek and Latin languages and literature may be necessary to the widest learning, it may be objected, to their general use as branches of elementary study, that it is utterly impracticable in our schools to carry the study of these languages to such a point of thoroughness as will at all realize the results aimed at.

A mere smattering of a language will not bestow the ability to enter into an acquaintance with its literature. This objection would seem to offset all the advantages named except two: the mental discipline resulting from the close attention required in the study of these languages, and the power of discrimination cultivated by the work of translation.

Mental Discipline.-It must be admitted that the responsibility rests upon the true educator of selecting such studies for pupils as will give the highest development with the least possible waste. The question is not whether the classic languages are capable of conferring upon the student certain beneficial results, but

whether these results are necessary, and whether these languages will produce them more economically than certain other branches.

So far as mental discipline is concerned, including the habits of observation, of quick and accurate perception, of severe attention, of close and patient reasoning, it may be doubted whether any branches are capable of more effective service than the natural sciences and mathematics. And in regard to the cultivation of spontaneous mental energy, and a habit of original discovery, it will scarcely be denied that the natural sciences stand supreme.

In acquiring the power of nice discrimination in the use of language, there can be no doubt that the pupil will be benefited by a careful drill in translating a foreign language into his own tongue. But the question still remains, whether this result may not be accomplished by the study of modern languages; and whether a sufficient mastery of language may not be obtained for understanding and expressing all the thoughts ever born into the world, and even for giving the nicest and most delicate shades of meaning, by the study of our own vernacular. The language of Shakespeare, Milton, and Blackstone has powers and capacities which render it inferior to no tongue ever spoken by man.

Schiller's Opinion.-Apropos to the value of translating for the purpose of gaining power in the vernacular, the German poet Schiller said to a friend, who asked him whether he read Shakespeare in English: "My business in life is to write German; and I am convinced that a person cannot read much in a for

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