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eign language without losing that delicate tact in the perception of the power of words which is essential to good writing."

SUMMARY IN REGARD TO LANGUAGE. -From the foregoing discussion in regard to language we derive conclusions as follows:

First: That language in its use, to a wide extent, is acquired incidentally, and that this acquisition commences at an early period of infancy, and continues through life.

Second: That the study of language directly, whether in the form of grammar or of comparative philology, involves principles closely allied to mental philosophy, and hence belongs to the advanced course of instruction.

Third: That the study of the vernacular leads most directly to the mastery of language, and hence should be made the basis of all linguistic study.

Fourth: That the pursuit of the classic languages belongs to the professional rather than to the general course, and that classic study possesses no just claims to be considered the basis of modern education, or the exclusive means for the attainment of culture.

Fifth That to reverse the process here pointed out, and to make the study of language the basis of instruction, is to violate the laws of mental growth, to fill the mind with words instead of ideas, and to form habits of expending so much force in verbal criticism as to overlook the weightier matter of the character and truth of the statement which the language contains.

GENERAL SUMMARY.-The conclusions in regard to the relative value of the different branches of instruction may be briefly stated as follows:

First: That real knowledge is demanded for both mental development and practical use; that the branches most valuable for mental development are those that enter most extensively into the affairs of life; that the order to be pursued in promoting the normal growth of the mind exactly conforms to the order of the presentation of the sciences founded upon dependence; and that the methods found to be most efficacious in arousing the faculties are the best calculated to unfold the truths of science.

Second: That the kind of knowledge best adapted to the promotion of the two great ends of education is that which lies nearest to us, which forces itself most strongly upon our notice, and which excites the greatest interest in the mind when attention has been directed to it. From that which is nearest and can be most easily known, the mind passes outward to the more remote, abstract, and unknown.

Third: That in the true course of study the natural sciences will serve as a basis; that language for expression will accompany every step in acquisition; that the mathematics will be coördinated with the concrete sciences; that the humanities will come in to complete the course; and that language as a science will be rele gated to the advanced course.

CHAPTER VII.

PESTALOZZI.

SCHOOLS OF THE OLDEN TIME.-Up to the time of the Reformation the common people of Europe were in a state of abject ignorance in regard to the elements generally considered as belonging to education. Reading and writing were accomplishments monopolized by the higher classes, and by no means universal even among them. The higher education was in the control of the priesthood, and was administered almost exclusively in the interest of the Church. Common schools, in which the whole body of the people had a rightful participation, were not only unknown, but an idea so revolutionary to the existing order of society had scarcely ever entered the consciousness of the most advanced thinkers.

Effect of Printing upon Education. The invention of printing, and the circumstances that followed the great protest against authority, resulted in a wide demand for schools in which reading should be taught. By slow degrees such schools were established, and in the most enlightened parts of Europe they became quite common.

Care of the Schools.-These schools naturally fell into the care of the priesthood, in both Catholic and

Protestant countries, in part from the force of habit, and in part because the priests constituted the only class who had sufficient education to manage them. The course of instruction in these schools embraced the alphabet, the elements of reading, the catechism, the memorizing of a certain number of maxims and rules, and sometimes writing. The whole of this instruction was of the most mechanical kind, and no attempt was made to develop the understanding of the pupil, or to give him that knowledge which would be of practical use in his future work.

Teachers Employed. The teachers of these schools, apart from the priests, were usually selected not on account of their fitness for teaching, but because they were fit for nothing else. Soldiers who had lost a limb. in battle, persons disabled by accident, and superannuated old men and women who were likely to become a public burden as paupers, were often chosen for teachers. In this manner ignorance came to the aid of routine, and reduced the value of instruction to its minimum.

Value of Learning to Read.-To a peasantry in a state of vassalage, who have no interest in the soil they till, whose labor is at the mercy of others, and who in consequence often suffer for the common necessaries of life, the mere ability to read is the veriest mockery. The training of the schools afforded no such intelligence as leads to the improvement of one's condition; and the ability to understand the printed page was of little value where there were no books to read and no leisure to spend in reading. Such an acquisition is poor comfort to a person destitute of clothing, and suffering from hunger.

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Schools for the common people, wherever established in Europe, were substantially in the condition described, until about the commencement of the present century. The ruling classes seemed to regard the common people as proper materials for soldiers to extend conquests, or for subjects to be taxed; and the last idea that could enter their minds was that these people were human beings, with all the rights and inborn capacities of other human beings, and that, therefore, they were entitled to the best education which the age could give.

Ideal Schools.-Rousseau, the French philosopher, in some of his speculations concerning man and his destiny, gave an outline of an ideal state of society, where intelligence and justice should take the place of ignorance and selfishness. Prominent among the philanthropic schemes of this dreamy philosopher was a system of universal education, by which every one could obtain that knowledge which would be of most worth to him in bettering his own condition, and in contributing to the general welfare of society.

PESTALOZZI'S CAREER.-Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi was then a young man, residing in his native city Zürich, in Switzerland. His attention was attracted to these writings, and they produced a deep impression upon his mind. He had become painfully aware of the ignorance and degradation of the common people of his native country, and the speculations of Rousseau seemed to give him the key to a method by which their condition might be improved. The circumstances of his own life had made him extremely sensitive to the injustice and absurdity of the divisions of society into

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