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the subsequent effort to express it clearly, are among the best possible school-exercises for the promotion of intellectual strength. The result of these efforts, when rightly directed, is to put knowledge in the best form for that practical use which still further increases the intellectual life.

Practical Knowledge takes Precedence.-It will be shown hereafter that the knowledge which is of most importance in serving our daily needs is that best adapted to secure intellectual growth; and that the arrangement, expression, and use of this knowledge, in the manner in which it must be employed in the industries and professions to which men devote themselves, is the most direct and efficacious way of securing intellectual strength.

Knowledge and Practice of Rights.-One other specific kind of knowledge seems to be indispensable to full intellectual development. In consequence of our needs, we have certain rights which are inherent and inalienable. Every human being, before he can arrive at a full mental stature, must not only have a knowledge of these rights, but he must be placed in full possession of them. If his rights are surrendered on the one hand, or infringed on the other, his capabilities are lessened, and he is intellectually both smaller and weaker than he otherwise would have been. This consideration shows the connection between intellectual and moral education.

MORAL EDUCATION considers the relations which exist between the individual and other human beings, and the conduct proper to observe in consequence of those

relations. Analogous to the divisions of physical and mental education, moral education consists first of moral growth, and secondly of moral strength. As moral action is complex, and intimately associated with the threefold manifestation of mental action-the intellect, the feelings, and the will—the agencies that promote moral growth and strength are more complex than those necessary to physical or mental growth.

Means of Moral Growth.-These are, first, the unconscious affection which reciprocates the love of parents; secondly, the sympathy which, either directly or indirectly, springs from personal experience; thirdly, the example and precepts of parents and instructors; and, fourthly, the investigation of human relations, and the development of the laws which govern such relations.

The Means of Moral Strength consist mainly in the application of the moral laws which have been developed to all cases of conduct where others are concerned. The power of self-control, of subordinating selfish propensities, and of the systematic performance of duty, come from practice alone; and this power needs to receive distinct encouragement through the whole period of school-life, so that, finally, moral strength may be gained.

The principles of moral development, and the general plan for the introduction of moral exercises into our schools, are given in the chapter on "Moral Education."

GENERAL SUMMARY.-This general survey of the educational field gives us an enlarged view of the na

ture and scope of education, and it enables us to express these enlarged ideas in the form of a definition. Education has for its objects the development and training of all the powers and faculties of a human being completely and harmoniously; the furnishing of the mind. with knowledge of the most worth in the performance of duties; the subjection of all the powers to the control of intelligent and beneficent motive; and the formation of the habit of yielding instant obedience to physical and spiritual laws.

Scientific View.-In a paper upon "A Liberal Education," Prof. Huxley summarizes his ideas of the character of an education which is demanded by the science and culture of the times. He says: "The question of compulsory education is settled so far as Nature is concerned. Her bill on that question was framed and passed long ago. But like all compulsory legislation, that of Nature is harsh and wasteful in its operation. Ignorance is visited as sharply as willful disobedience; incapacity meets the same punishment as crime. Nature's discipline is not even a word and a blow, and the blow first; but the blow without the word. It is left to you to find out why your ears are boxed.

"The object of what we commonly call education —that education in which man intervenes, and which I shall distinguish as artificial education-is to make good these defects in Nature's methods; to prepare the child to receive Nature's education neither incapably, nor ignorantly, nor with willful disobedience; and to understand the preliminary symptoms of her displeasure without waiting for the box on the ear. In short, all artificial education ought to be an anticipation of natural


And a liberal education is an artificial education, which has not only prepared a man to escape the great evils of disobedience to natural laws, but has trained him to appreciate and to seize upon the rewards, which Nature scatters with as free a hand as her penalties. "That man, I think, has had a liberal education who has been so trained in youth that his body is the ready servant of his will, and does with ease and pleasure all the work that, as a mechanism, it is capable of; whose intellect is a clear, cold logic-engine, with all its parts of equal strength, and in smooth working order; ready, like a steam-engine, to be turned to any kind of work, and spin the gossamers as well as forge the anchors of the mind; whose mind is stored with a knowledge of the great and fundamental truths of Nature, and of the laws of her operations; one who, no stunted ascetic, is full of life and fire, but whose passions are trained to come to heel by a vigorous will, the servant of a tender conscience; who has learned to love all beauty, whether of Nature or art, to hate all vileness, and to respect others as himself.

"Such an one and no other, I conceive, has had a liberal education; for he is, as completely as a man can be, in harmony with Nature. He will make the best of her, and she of him. They will get on together rarely, she as his ever-beneficent mother, he as her mouthpiece, her conscious self, her minister and interpreter."

This view of education shows that the instruction prevalent in our schools usually falls far below educational demands. It shows also that teachers frequently t ke narrow and limited views of their work, and so fail in accomplishing the highest attainable good.

Effects of Broader Views.-With these enlarged views in regard to the nature of their work, teachers will pay particular attention to everything that pertains to the physical comfort of their pupils; and they will carefully investigate the laws of physical existence for guidance in the proper care and training of the body. They will make their pupils intelligent in regard to the food they eat, the dress they wear, and every condition which affects their physical welfare.

In mental work they will arrange a course of study in exact accordance with the needs of each stage of mental development; and they will present the knowledge embraced in such a course in the way which science points out. They will not be contented with empiric processes and meagre results. They will be guided by rational and intelligent principles rather than by mere precedent or authority, and in all their work they will conform to the laws of mental development, obtained from a study of mind itself. They will aim to give their pupils greater power to do work in every vocation to which they may afterward be called.

In morals, teachers will aim to have their pupils measure and regulate their own conduct toward others by the standard of human welfare so clearly expressed in the golden rule, and to make them intelligent in regard to all human relations. They will so order their work and their own conduct as to stimulate the pupil to devote his life to beneficent use, and to the attainment of that crowning excellence of all education-nobility of character.

The following chapters of this work are devoted to a development of the principles which underlie this

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