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or automatic actions which do not involve intelligence; and those carried to the sensorium and no farther, produce a semi-reflex action in which there are only faint traces of intelligence. Impressions made upon the sensorium are reflected back in the same manner as received, as when words or formulas are repeated when not understood.

Semi-Reflex Action.-The following quotation from a late article in the London Times reviewing the work of Dr. Carpenter further illustrates this principle, and shows its application directly to the work of teaching.

"There are probably few teachers who have not heard something about the possibility of 'learning by rote,' which is one form of mere sensorial activity in which certain sounds have become associated with the sight of certain written or printed symbols, and are uttered when these symbols are seen and remembered; but there probably is not one in a thousand who understands what 'learning by rote' is; how it is accomplished by the nervous centres; how it differs from learning with the intelligence; and how it may be detected and exposed under whatever guise it may be concealed.

"The great majority of teachers think that they have banished learning by rote when their pupils are able to explain their first answer to a question by a second one; the second, in most cases, being as purely sensorial a symbol as the first, and the original sight symbol, with its two vocal equivalents, being really, as far as ideation is concerned, an unknown quantity, for which either of the two other unknown quantities may be substituted.

"One of the most familiar illustrations of sensorial

action is that which was recorded by the late Mr. Brookfield, in which two children, aged about eleven years, who did their arithmetic and reading tolerably well, who wrote something pretty legible, intelligible, and sensible about an omnibus, and about a steamboat, were called upon to write the answers of the Church Catechism to two questions. The children had been accustomed to repeat the Catechism during half an hour each day in day-school and Sunday-school, for four or five years, and this is what they wrote:

"My duty toads God is to bleed in him to fearin and to loaf withold your arts withold my mine withold my sold and with my sernth to whirchp and to give thanks to put my old trast in him to call upon him to onner his old name and his world and to save him truly all the days of my life's end.'

"My dooty tords my nabers to love him as thyself to do to all men as I wed thou shall do and to me to love onner and suke my farther and mother to onner and to bay the queen and all that one pet in a forty under her to smit myself to all my goones teaches spiritial pastures and marsters to oughten mysilf lordly and every to all my betters to hut no body by would nor deed to be treu in jest in all my deelins to beer no malis nor ated in your arts to kep my ands from peckin and steel my turn from evil speak and lawing and slanders not to civet or desar othermans good but to learn labour trewly to get my own leaving and to do my doody in that state if life and to each it his please God to call men.'

"It will be observed that these written answers, if recited with sufficient rapidity, in the customary schoolroom patter, really bear a horrible likeness to the sounds

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of the genuine one; and there can be but little doubt that the writers and their classmates had so recited them for years, to the entire satisfaction of all who were 'pet in a forty' over them.

"Even in Mr. Brookfield's report, from which the examples are taken, there is no evidence of any perception that they represent a nervous action which, as a result of teaching, is wholly wrong in kind, and not only in degree, and which, so far as it is permitted to continue, is not merely an expression of waste of time, but of the growth of habits, directly antagonistic to, and incompatible with, those which it should be the chief object of instruction to encourage.

"Until this is recognized and acted upon, and until teachers have some knowledge of the profound difference between the two kinds of action as modes of mental operation, it is hopeless to expect from schools an amount of cultivation of the intelligence at all commensurate with the magnitude and costliness of the machinery which is employed."

Studies too Difficult.-Another habit, which is very prevalent and which is almost as pernicious, is that of assigning to pupils studies too difficult for their comprehension. Without really understanding a single principle of the subject taught, they career along, occasionally catching a gleam of knowledge, but falling far short of what might be accomplished in the same length of time by rightlyd-irected efforts.

Examples. The prevalent method of teaching mental arithmetic to small children is a case in point. Because mental arithmetic has been proved to be a most excellent discipline for the mind at the proper time, it

therefore seems to be assumed that it will be of great value at all times. Hence it has been extensively introduced into primary schools. By the study of it young pupils have been obliged to go through reasoning processes which would severely tax the mental powers of adults, and this, too, before their reasoning faculties were developed sufficiently to readily understand the subject. The result has been that frequently pupils have learned the formulas by which the examples are analyzed, just as they would learn any other form of words, while the real reasoning contained in the process was never understood.

In grammar, the same mistake is often made. Through the erroneous notion that English grammar teaches how to speak and write the English language correctly, textbooks in grammar are put into the hands of young children, and their minds are crammed with definitions and rules concerning the philosophic structure of language, and this before their mental powers are so far developed as to comprehend the principles which are sought to be given. The matter memorized, having failed to reach the understanding, becomes a hinderance rather than a help to education.

In reading-classes the same fault obtains. Pupils are permitted, through the ambition or weakness of their teacher, to read in books entirely above their comprehension; and the result is, that they fail to obtain any knowledge from their reading, while the delivery, as a necessary consequence, becomes expressionless and


Faults of Omission.-The next great fault is a defect or omission rather than a positive evil. The pri

mary exercises for training the observing powers are neglected to such an extent that, as far as the schools are concerned, pupils might almost as well be born deaf and blind. The objects with which they come daily in contact, the phenomena which constantly appear before their eyes, the facts of Nature and of consciousness upon which all science and philosophy are based, are nearly, if not entirely, neglected. At the same time the studies pursued have little connection with matters of common interest, and, as a consequence, fail of bestowing that practical knowledge and breadth of culture necessary to the highest success.

Examples.-Generally, in schools, very little if any attention is given to the open book of Nature, which contains lessons of such transcendent importance and interest. One series of the lessons thus neglected is the peculiar stratification, marking, and fossils of the rocks, each of which is a key to a history more profound than that recorded in any human chronology. Another similar neglected series is found in the wonderful variety of plants, each one an object of beauty, and all together, in their manner of growth, in their distribution, and in their peculiar habits, furnishing lessons which cannot fail to leave their impress of mental growth, and to become sources of never-ending delight while life and sense last. The curious and strange forms of animal life, the metamorphoses of insects from creeping worms to gorgeous butterflies, the peculiar habits of beasts and birds, and the instincts which so nearly approach reasoning, are all replete with these interesting lessons, and they are usually so neglected that the mind fails of comprehending the evidences of intelligence

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