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Securing Attention.-Third corollary.

Attention

is best secured by proper and related object-lessons.

A child is always more interested in something that appeals to his senses than in abstract matters. By adapting the lessons to the capacity of the child and by appealing to his curiosity, the teacher can always succeed in getting attention. In the process of growth the mind becomes interested in more abstract matters, and the object-lessons may be gradually omitted.

Cultivating Perceptions.-Fourth corollary. Perceptive knowledge should be made the basis of primary instruction.

This follows from the fact that the pe rceptivepowers are relatively most active in childhood, and hence there is a craving for perceptive food. It equally follows from the fact that such knowledge is needed for the next step in mental growth, and that a failure to improve the season and opportunity is fatal to the highest improvement.

Exercises in Memory.-Fifth corollary. Memory is best cultivated by forcible, repeated, and related perceptions and ideas.

This follows from the general fact that the deepest impression is retained the longest, and it shows that the faculties are so related that, in the primary stages, that course of training which is best for one is best for all. It also effectually disposes of the nonsense that roteteaching should be practised because it "strengthens the memory."

Advanced Instruction.-Sixth corollary. Subjects appealing mainly to the reason and judgment belong to the advanced course of instruction.

This principle is so obvious, that there would be no necessity of stating it were it not for the fact that it is so often violated in practice. Many studies are admitted in the primary-school course which have no place there, and little children are given tasks which would tax the ability of mature minds. The result is, that teaching must of necessity become mechanical, because the logical formulas are simply understood as sounds, and not as ideas.

Ideas and Words. - Seventh Corollary. Ideas should precede words.

This principle follows from the nature of language, and the relations of language to thought. While the statement is all that is needed to establish its truth, a more detailed explanation is necessary to show its application in certain cases. The principle includes the following minor statements: Objects should precede names; thoughts should precede sentences; knowledge should precede definitions.

This last proposition, besides being included in the general principle, may be directly inferred from the laws of mental development, and from the nature of the objective course.

By reversing this process, and giving definitions or attempting to give them before the thing defined is well understood, several of the fundamental principles of teaching are violated, time and effort are wasted, and the powers of the mind are permanently injured by a most unnatural process.

The Steps of Instruction.-Eighth corollary. Instruction should proceed from the known to the unknown. This truth also shows that the attainment of

all knowledge should have a basis in personal experience. By directing the observing powers to the objects and phenomena nearest at hand, the mind becomes possessed of real knowledge; and from this sure basis of home knowledge it gradually extends outward toward the unknown. Each item of the unknown is converted into the known, and each step taken is a firm step in advance.

This principle includes the following elements: Instruction should proceed from the concrete to the abstract; from the simple to the complex; and from facts to principles. In examining a single object, instruction may go from the general to the particular, but with a number of objects it passes from the particular to the general.

Exercise. The ninth corollary is: Exercise should be left to the pupil. The race, in its education, was obliged to gain knowledge by experiences which nearly as often retarded as promoted direct development. The teacher's work should prevent these obstacles, and should so direct the pupil in the use of his own powers that the greatest progress may be made with the least waste. In the exercise of this directive power the teacher must avoid the very prevalent fault of telling too much, and by so doing of depriving the pupil of an opportunity for that mental exercise which is indispensable to his highest good.

To the end that the pupil shall receive the highest benefit, the teacher must always carefully select the materials to be used, and so arrange the conditions that with ordinary observation the pupil will discover the desired truth. This end can be defeated either by rendering the process too obscure for the mental vision of

the pupil, or by injudicious haste in verbal explanation. When the teacher has so excited the curiosity of the pupil that he is led to inquire, the desired end is more than half attained.

Completed Processes.-Tenth corollary. Each process of instruction should include full perception, distinct understanding, clear expression, and, where possible, the passing of thought into act.

In much of school-work the processes stop at one or the other of these steps, few being carried to the final consummation. Some-as rote-lessons-never reach perceptions, but are reflected back from this sensorium in automatic action; some-as most of the lessons in primary grammar-fail to reach the understanding, but remain as vague perceptions. In very few schools is the practice of clear expression enforced at all times; and yet, from the necessity of forcible impressions, and from the relations of thought to the language, expression is seen to be an important factor in both the reception and the retention of knowledge, and in clear understanding.

The last step, the passing of thought into act, is now scarcely thought of in any schools except in the kindergartens and the schools of technology; still, it will be seen that the step is necessary to the full perception and distinct understanding of many subjects; to the physical training that coördinates study and work; and to the application of ideas and thought to common affairs and duties.

CHAPTER V.

OBJECT-TEACHING.

GENERAL VIEW OF THE SUBJECT.-Primary teaching, until within a comparatively recent period, has consisted chiefly of mere rote and routine work. The experience of the pupil before he entered school was made of little or no real value in the distinctive exercises of the school. From the observation of things with which he was partially familiar, and in which he took an interest, his attention was forcibly turned to the consideration of the arbitrary characters which make up the alphabet. School-work was considered as not only having no particular relation to previous experience, but as something directly opposed to it.

False Philosophy.-The philosophy somehow obtained that, the more difficult an exercise was made, and the more it differed from ordinary occupations and thoughts, the greater was its value as a mental exercise. In consequence, the school-lessons were little more than memorizing exercises, and the schoolroom became a very hateful place to the majority of children.

Introduction of Object-Lessons.—While these mechanical and unnatural methods were in practice, ob

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