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“ Δῆλον τοίνυν ὅτι τρία γένη τῶν θεωρητικῶν ἐπιστημῶν ἐστί, φυσική, μαθηματική, θεολογική. Βέλτιστον μὲν οὖν τὸ τῶν θεωρητικῶν ἐπιστημῶν γένος, τούτων δ ̓ αὐτῶν ἡ τελευταία λεχθεῖσα· περὶ τὸ τιμιώτατον γάρ ἐστι τῶν ὄντων, βελτίων δὲ καὶ χείρων ἑκάστη λέγεται κατὰ τὸ οἰκεῖον ἐπιστητόν. ̓Απορήσειε δ ̓ ἄν τις ποτερόν ποτε τὴν τοῦ ὄντος ᾗ ἂν ἐπιστήμην καθόλου δεῖ θεῖναι ἢ οὔ. Τῶν μὲν γὰρ μαθηματικῶν ἑκάστη περὶ ἕν τι γένος ἀφορισμένον ἐστίν, ἡ δὲ καθόλου κοινὴ περὶ πάντων. Εἰ μὲν οὖν αἱ φυσικαὶ οὐσίαι πρῶται τῶν ὄντων εἰσί, κἂν ἡ φυσικὴ πρώτη τῶν ἐπιστημῶν εἴη· εἰ δ ̓ ἔστιν ἑτέρα φύσις καὶ οὐσία χωριστὴ καὶ ἀκίνητος, ἑτέραν ἀνάγκη καὶ τὴν ἐπιστήμην αὐτῆς εἶναι καὶ προτέραν τῆς φυσικῆς καὶ καθόλου τῷ προτέραν.”—ARISTOTLE, Metaphys., X. vii. 9, 10.
"Inter empiricam et rationalem facultatem (quarum morosa et inauspicata divortia et repudia omnia in humana familia turbavere) conjugium verum et legitimum in perpetuum nos firmasse existimavimus."-BACON, Nov. Org., Præf.
HENRY JAMES CLARKE, A.K.C.
VICAR OF GREAT BARR,
LATE THEOLOGICAL LECTURER IN KING'S COLLEGE, LONDON,
AUTHOR OF A METRICAL TRANSLATION OF THE BOOK OF JOB
KEGAN PAUL, TRENCH & CO., 1, PATERNOSTER SQUARE
A SCIENCE presupposes the discovery of laws inherent in the nature of things, and so related as to yield an increase of knowledge when studied in connection with one another. But in whatsoever direction scientific investigation is pursued, there comes to light in the issues towards which it is perceived to tend, the truth that all possible objects of cognition, including the subject in which it takes place, have inter-relations so conditioned that the ultimate limits of cognition cannot be reached in respect to anything unless viewed as a portion of the whole. It may, therefore, be affirmed that there is, in strictness of philosophical speech, but One Science. If this be represented under the figure of a pile of buildings, we may picture to ourselves rooms and halls and corridors, in contemplating the Sciences so called. Is there in this structure any part which may be legitimately regarded as the foundation? As the reader will of course have already perceived, I believe that there is. My aim in this work is to render it apparent; to show that there is a Fundamental Science, to expound its principles, and to point out its importance and value.
The Text is throughout a continuous chain of reasoning. The first chapter investigates conceptions in which