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writing, 2-his philosophic temperament, 3-4-extracts from his
Method,' 5-6-his thirst for philosophic and scientific truth, 7-8—
Descartes less a sceptic than a dogmatist, 9-10-his timidity and
love of quiet, 11-his plagiarisms, 12-4-his admirably lucid style,
15-brief account of the chief principles of his philosophical sys-
tem, 16-his Cogito, ergo sum,' 16-8-the proof of a God and
external world, 19-20-his philosophy in collision with that of
Bacon, 20-presumption of his first philosophical work, 21-2-his
à priori system, 23-4-his physics, 25-M. Bouillier's Eloge of
Descartes, 25-6-the Cartesian philosophy, innate ideas, 26-
cessary and contingent truths, 27-Dr. Whewell and Mr. J. S. Mill,
28-30-Mr. Hallam's views as to the origination of mathematical
definitions, 31-2, and note-Descartes' celebrated doctrine of Innate
Ideas, 33-4-Sir W. Hamilton's views on the subject, 34-5-meta-
physics compelled to make use of figurative language, 36-the
Cartesian proof of the existence of a God, 37-40—the Infinite and
the Indefinite, 41-2—the 'Methods' of Bacon and Descartes, 43-4
-Playfair's remark on the slight use which Descartes made of ex-
periment, 44-5-induction and deduction, 45-6-conjunct employ-
ment of hypothesis and experiment, 47-8-rules for the use of the
human understanding, 49, and note-coincidences between Des-
cartes's 'Régles pour la direction de l'esprit,' and Bacon's 'Novum
Organum,' 50-Cartesian views of brutes, 51-6, and notes-im-
materiality and immortality, 57-59.


Farini's Stato Romano, and other works in relation to Rome and Italy,
review of, 357-the reforming period of Pius IX., 358-60-the
Roman Catholic Powers, and their assumption of the sole right of
interfering in the affairs of Rome, 360-1-the diplomatists at the
Court of Rome in 1848, 361-2- ecclesiastical power incompatible
with the free exercise of civil power, 362-3-the Pope at present
no independent Power, 363-4-can the Papal Government accom-
modate itself to Constitutional forms? 364-5-relation between the
civil and spiritual power, 365-6-to constitutionalise the Roman
State is an impossibility, 367-8-ecclesiastical interests and those
civil and local must clash, 368-ecclesiastical caste and influence,
369-70-moderation of the Roman people prior to and during the
late revolution of 1848, 371-2-the Note of May, 1831, from the
five great Powers of Europe, 372-Roman rebellions and Roman
debt, 373-4-early policy of Pius IX., 374, extract-his Allocution
in April 29. 1848, 375-6-the Roman Constitution of March,
1848, 376-8-the responsibility of the Court of Gaeta, 379-80—the
Popes of the Middle Ages, 381-proposed league among the Roman
Catholic Powers for the purpose of coercing the Roman people,
382-Rome in 1809, compared with Rome in 1849, 383-5-Car-
dinal Pacca on the temporal sovereignty of the Pope, 385-6-the
question of Papal Independence considered, 386-7-the Papal tem-
poral monarchy cannot stand, 387-8—the difficulty of replacing it,
388-90-not merely an Italian question, but one vitally affecting

Europe generally, 390-3-works by Farini, Torre, Ricciardi,


International Copyright, a few words on, 145-reprints of English
works in France, Belgium, and America, 145-6, and note-luke-
warmness of authors on this subject, 147-treaty between France
and England, 148—conditions in the case of translations, 149-50—
articles of treaty between France and England, 150-1—the retro-
active clause, 151-America and Belgium still literary pirates,


Investments for the Working Classes, review of Parliamentary Re-
ports, and other works relating to, 405-difficulties attending the
endeavours of the philanthropist, 405-6-savings' banks, 406, note
-amount deposited in savings' banks, friendly societies, &c., in
1830, 1849, and 1850, 407-importance of the poor becoming
capitalists, 407-8-effects of loss on investments by the poor, 409—
defalcations in savings' banks, 410-2-necessity of legislative in-
terference, 412-friendly societies and their privileges, 413-4-life
assurance policies, 415-6, and note-injurious effects of the late
fiscal restraints, 417-8-deferred annuities, 418-9-Poulett Scrope
on the subject, 419-21-benefit building societies, 421-2- Mr.
Scratchley's views in favour of, 422-3-impediments to investments
in land, 423-4—the true policy of landowners, 424-5—difficulties in
acquisition of land, 425-6-cost of transfer of land, 427, and note—
the Westmoreland and Cumberland 'statesmen,' 428-probable
results of a cheap, easy, and safe system of sale of land, ib.-free-
hold land societies, 428-9-Mr. Scratchley's views in favour of,
429, extract-objections to these associations, 430-1—Mr. Scratch-
ley on the workings of, 431, extract-Mr. Feargus O'Connor's Land
Company, 431-wildness of the calculations of the projector, 432-
necessary failure of the scheme, 433-land assurance companies,
434-5-working men's associations, 436-41-impediments to their
efficient working, arising from the existing Law of Partnership,
441-2-mode of removing these impediments, 443-5-partnership
with limited liability, 445-8-objections against, 448-9-partner-
ship en commandite, 449-52-expediency of legislative enactments
to facilitate the working classes entering into the above arrange-
ments, 452-3.


John Knox's Liturgy, review of Dr. Cumming's edition of, and other
works, 453-4-diverse views on the expediency of a ritual form of
worship, 455-6-extemporaneous prayer, 457-8-forms or no forms
in the service of the sanctuary, 458-9-Pliny's testimony to the
existence of a form of worship among the Christians immediately
subsequent to the Apostolic age, 460-non-existence at any period
of the Christian Church of a Catholic' Apostolic Liturgy, 461-
the Liturgy of the Apostolical Constitutions, 462-reasons to con-
clude that the service of the early Christians was celebrated memo-

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riter by the priests, 462-3-according to Mr. Palmer, the liturgies
of the Primitive Churches may be reduced to four, 463-a certain
identity to be traced in all the earlier liturgies, 464-the formal
prayers in use up to the Reformation, adopted by the Reformed
Churches, 465-the Presbyterian Church of Scotland the only
National Church in Christendom in which formal prayers do not
prevail, ib.-Luther's Order of the Service in the Congregation,'
ib.-his directions for the services of the week-days and Sabbath,
466 his views on the subject of Formal Prayer, 467-8-the Re-
formed Churches of Northern Europe drew up liturgies for
themselves, 468-Calvin's views of Formal Prayer, 468-9-the
Communion Service, 469-Knox averse to kneeling at, 470, note
-the forms of Baptism and Marriage, 470-1-the Genevan Liturgy,
471-Knox never approved of the English Liturgy, 473-different
views taken by the churches at Frankfort and Zurich, ib.—the
Order of Geneva,' or 'Knox's Liturgy,' 475-6, and note-Dr.
Cumming's protest against extemporaneous prayer, 476—the Duke
of Argyll on the growth of Episcopacy in Scotland, 476-7-the
expediency of adopting a liturgy in the Church of Scotland, 478-9
-a combination of formal and extemporaneous prayer probably
acceptable to the great bulk of the Scotch clergy, 480-1.


Legislation, recent Progress of, review of Statutes and Parliamentary
Debates in connexion with, 94-historical popularity of Parliaments,
95-6-Parliamentary Reform, 97-8-Municipal Reform, 99-100-
civil and religious liberty, 101-4-legislation for the Church,
104-7-national education in Great Britain, 107-8-national edu-
cation in Ireland, 109-10—social evils corrected, 110-3—the Poor
Laws, 111-2-sanitary measures, 113-commercial legislation,
113-6-law reforms: County Courts, 116-7-reform in Court of
Chancery, 118-consolidation, structure, and language of statutes,
119-20-recognition of sound principles, 121-2.


Mallet du Pan, review of Memoirs and Correspondence of, 481-part
played by Geneva in the affairs of Europe between 1760 and 1782,
481-2-Mallet du Pan a journalist both by necessity and choice,
482-his side of politics the unpopular one, ib.-his views emi-
nently Conservative, 483-importance of his views to France at
the present day, 484-his early career, ib.-his connexion with
Linguet, 484-5-his steady and unbending temperament, 485-
occupation of Geneva by the Sardinian troops, 486-Mallet du Pan
leaves Geneva, and conducts the Mercure de France' for Panck-
oucke, the Paris bookseller, ib.-his determination not to be dic-
tated to, 487, extract—offers the pages of his journal to the friends
of Warren Hastings, ib.―becomes identified with the 'Constitu-
tionalists' or 'Monarchiens,' 488—their political views, ib.-Mallet
du Pan always in favour of mixed government,' 489-perils in-
curred by him in his editorship of the Mercure,' 489-90, and ex-


tract-Chateaubriand on situations of prolonged political danger,
491-extract from the 'Mercure,' on Mallet du Pan's taking leave
of his literary labours and connexions, 492-3-—his connexion with
the Court party, 493-4-his Mémoire' presented to the sovereigns,
494-5-extract from the 'Manifesto, 495-another from the
' Mémoire,' ib.—-he continues to write against the Revolution at
Geneva, Berne, Freiburg, and London, 496-his disinterestedness,
ib.-extract from an address to Lord Elgin and M. de Mercy, 497
-his hopes for a re-establishment of Royalty frustrated by the
success of Buonaparte, 498-remarks on the elevation of Napoleon
to the Consulate, extract, 498-9—his preference of the Consular
Government over the anarchy which immediately preceded it, 499
-finds a last refuge in England, ib.-carries on there with success
his Mercure Britannique,' ib.—dies at Richmond, 500—his funeral
eulogy by Lally Tolendal, ib.-remarks on the little political or
social improvement that has resulted to France from the influence
of the press or literature, 500-7-influence of the drama on the
public mind, 507-Buonapartism, 507-10-Guizot on Napoleon's
Repression of Democracy, 511-the Party of Order, 511-4-
character and prospects of the present Government of France,


National Education, review of works in favour of, 321-the contro-
versy between the Lancaster National School and the promoters of
the Salford and Manchester Scheme, 321-2-difference of systems
for England and Ireland, 323-4-Mr. A. Baring and the Rev. G.
R. Gleig, 324-Royal Military Asylum at Chelsea, 324-6-condi-
tion in which Messrs. Baring and Gleig found the pupils, 326-7—
remodelling of the Asylum, 327-good effects of educating the
army, 328-extract giving Mr. Fox Maule's evidence before the
late Committee on Military Expenditure, 328-9-evidence of the
Secretary of War on the subject, 329-30-nature of the military
schools, 331-2-school-books and attendance, 333-Gleig's series
of school-books, ib.-why not adopt a system which works well in
the army, to meet the wants of the nation? 334-what is culti-
vating the religious principle? 335-union of the State with reli-
gion, and not with the Church, 336-8-arguments of Mr. Denison
and others of his school, 338-9-popular education neglected in
England at the Reformation, 339-40-Joseph Lancaster, Dr. Bell,
and the National Society, 341-Mr. Dawe's school at King's Som-
borne, Hampshire, 342-3-a national school at Great Braxted, in
Essex, 343-4-education on the voluntary principle at its last gasp,
345-the Training Institutions of the Church approaching a state
of collapse, ib.-Battersea, St. Mark's, and Westminster, ib.-in-
sufficiency of voluntary support, 346-7-plans of National Associa-
tion; Manchester and Salford, 348-52, extract-school at Ash, in
Kent, 353-details of proposed plan, 353-7.

Nicaragua: its People, Scenery, Monuments, and the proposed
Inter-oceanic Canal. By E. G. Squier, review of, 553-British and

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Spanish colonisation in America, 553-4-Nicaragua and Costa
Rica, 555-6-Mr. Squier's Anglo-American views, 556-7-is
Central America destined to be annexed to the United States?
558-60-Mr. Squier's residence at San Juan de Nicaragua, 560-1-
the 'Paseo,' 561, extract-the book wants concentration, 562-the
lakes of Managua and Masaya, 563-the volcanoes of Central
America, 563-7, and extracts—the Inter-oceanic Canal, 567-8.
Note to Art. IX. of No. CXCIV., 586-7.

Nouvelles Causes Célèbres. See Tronson du Coudray.

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Ordnance Survey of Scotland, review of works relating to, 179-
existing maps of Scotland very defective, 179-80-Roy's Survey
of Scotland, 181-Arrowsmith's Map of the Highlands, 182-state
of Scotland at the time of Roy's survey and now, 182-3-errors
and omissions in existing maps, 183-5-progress of the survey,
185-6-indignation at its suspension, 187-sums voted and ex-
pended on the survey of Scotland since 1819, 188-history of
English survey, 189-history of Irish survey, 190-appointment
of Select Committee, 191-exertions of the British Association and
of the Royal Society, 191-2-six-inch scale, why adopted, 193-4—
uses of six-inch and one-inch maps, 195-6-nature of six-inch
maps, 197-8-size and price of the one-inch scale and the six-inch
scale maps, 199-200-general, superiority of one-inch maps, 201—
this confirmed by Lord Monteagle's evidence, ib.-maps with con-
tour lines, 202-history of contour lines, 203-4-value of contour
lines, 204-5-Sir R. Murchison and Mr. Keith Johnston in favour
of maps on the six-inch scale in some instances, ib.-recommenda-
tion that the survey be proceeded with regularly from north to
south, 207-other recommendations by the Committee, 207-8-
map must be speedily completed, 209-confirmed by Lord Mont-
eagle and the officers of survey, 209-10-good maps possessed by
France, Bavaria, and Saxony, 210-map illustration of history,
211-2-determination and right of Scotland to have the map, 213.

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Palgrave's History of Normandy and England, review of, 153-the
history of the Normans an essential part of the knowledge of
English history, ib.—the Carlovingians and Merovingians, 154—
the Teutons and the Franks, 155-the Mayors of the Palace, ib.—
Charlemagne, the man of his time, 156-the Missi and Missi
Dominici, 156-7-Mademoiselle Lezardière's View of the Frankish
Court, 157-failure of the Carlovingian Empire, 158-the Norman
tribunal, 159-Roman and Teutonic practices and principles,
160-1-Roman influence on the Gallo-Francs, 161, and note-
comprehensive nature of the work, 162-Sir F. Palgrave's mode of
treating his subject, 162-3-the medieval chroniclers, 163-5, ex-
tracts-peculiarity in the mode adopted by the author, 165-his
reasons for dictating his work in preference to writing it, ib.,
extract-influence of Roman literature, habits, and laws, 165-6-

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