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eternal life, and overcome sin. It is this that makes you honour age and wisdom, and prevents your turning aside from poverty and distress; it is this that enables you to repel error and falsehood, and teaches you to love truth. Children, it is this that makes the coward a hero, the idler a man of action; that makes us honour the stranger, and come to the rescue of the outcast and the fallen."

The manuscript in the hands of Mr. Morf is not all that Pestalozzi entrusted to Krusi; there were also a number of separate sheets, made use of by Krusi for his publication, which have since been lost. But everything contained in The Natural Schoolmaster and the Paternal Instructions has been published by Seyffarth in the sixteenth volume of his collection of Pestalozzi's works, a volume which any one who was thinking of preparing a manual of languageexercises for young children would do well to read.



Helpers. Vulliemin's reminiscences. Prussia adopts the Pestalozzian Method. Great reputation of the Institute. Testimony of Ritter, Raumer, etc. School for girls. School for deaf-mutes. Life in the institute. A printing-press in the Castle. "Weekly Journal of Education." Other publications. Games, manual labour, festivities.

ONCE installed in the old Castle of Yverdun,1 the institute grew rapidly; the pupils were soon much more numerous than they had been at Burgdorf, and the number of masters was considerably increased. Many of the latter had been pupils at Burgdorf, and now, as under-masters entrusted with the teaching of the most elementary subjects, they faithfully applied the method by which they had themselves been formed. The others were men of various attainments and capacity, who had eagerly accepted work under Pestalozzi.

Amongst the new helpers we must mention :

John Niederer, of Outer Appenzell, Doctor of Philosophy, who when the Burgdorf institute was opened was the pastor of Sennwald, in the Rheinthal. In the letters which he wrote at the time to his intimate friend Tobler, and which have since been published by his widow, he expresses sincere admiration for Pestalozzi, and a great desire to join him. This desire, however, was not satisfied till some years later, for he would not leave his parish till he was satisfied that it would not suffer from his absence. Niederer has been called the philosopher of the "method,"

1 Once the residence of the Bailiffs of Canton Berne, it had become the property of the Vaudese Government, and had been sold in 1804 to the town of Yverdun, on condition that Pestalozzi, during his life, should have the gratuitous use of it for his educational institution.

because he put Pestalozzi's ideas into a more philosophical form. At Ÿverdun he revised everything that the master wrote for publication, correcting the chief defects, and, it must be added, somewhat spoiling the originality of both matter and form. Indeed, if Pestalozzi's thought is to be thoroughly understood, it must be examined in those of his writings which were not touched by anybody but himself.

De Murault, of Zurich, a well-informed man, of large views and good administrative ability; simple and kindly with children. He had lived in Paris, and spoke French fairly well; and as all the singing in the institute was in German, he won the hearts of all the French-speaking boys by taking us for walks, and teaching us songs in our mothertongue. He afterwards became the head of an important educational establishment in St. Petersburg.

Mieg, a capable man; kind, but very firm. After Murault's departure, Pestalozzi entrusted him for some time with the general management of the discipline of the institute.

Von Türck, of a noble family in the north of Germany. He gave up a good position in the Oldenburg magistracy to come and study Pestalozzi's work, of which he afterwards published an account, with the title: Letters from Munchenbuchsee on Pestalozzi and his Elementary Method of Education. This man, distinguished alike for his talents, his high aims, and his extraordinary strength of will, after having conducted a school in Yverdun in connection with Pestalozzi's institute, was appointed a Councillor of State in Potsdam, where he zealously worked for thirty years at the application and propagation of the master's doctrine.

Barraud, soon called away by Maine de Biran to Bergerac, in Dordogne, where he founded an educational institute based on Pestalozzi's principles.

Amongst the poor children who had been received at Burgdorf, and who afterwards became masters at Yverdun, the three most distinguished were:

Ramsauer, of whom mention has already been made, and whom we shall have occasion to quote again.

1 He had been teaching in a family in Paris at the time of the Consulta, and having become acquainted with Pestalozzi, had expressed a desire to work with him.

2 The author was an old Yverdun pupil.


Joseph Schmidt, a shepherd-boy from the Tyrol, who had had no early education whatever. Burgdorf had a greater influence on his intellect than on his heart. He soon showed a remarkable talent for mathematics, which he taught at Yverdun with great skill and astonishing success. With a glance like an eagle and a will of iron, he was crafty, domineering, and utterly devoid of sensibility. He gradually obtained complete ascendancy over Pestalozzi's mind, and was finally the cause of the departure of the other masters, and of the ruin of the institute. It was he who drew up the Elementary Lessons in Number and Form, which are printed in volumes xiv. and xv. of the very incomplete edition of Pestalozzi's works published by Cotta from 1820 to 1826.

Steiner, a neglected child, who received all his education from Pestalozzi at Burgdorf. He was an under-master at Yverdun, and was one of the pupils who did the greatest credit to the "method." Much later he became a professor of mathematics in Berlin, and published works which have had a very considerable effect in popularizing and improving the study of that science.

Such were now Pestalozzi's chief helpers. There were many others afterwards, but it must be remembered that we are speaking of a time when the Yverdun institute was still in its infancy.

To give our readers a clear idea of the life of the institute in these early days, we cannot do better than quote the interesting writer who has lately published, for his family and friends, as he says, the memories of his childhood. We refer to Professor Vulliemin, the eminent historian and continuator of Jean de Muller. He entered Pestalozzi's institute in 1805, at the age of eight, and remained there two years. His account of the place is as follows:

"Imagine, my children, a very ugly man, with rough, bristling hair, his face scarred with small-pox and covered with freckles, a pointed, untidy beard, no neck-tie, ill-fitting trousers, stockings down, and enormous shoes; add to this. a breathless, shuffling gait, eyes either large and flashing, or half-closed as though turned within, features expressing either a profound sadness or the most peaceful happiness, speech now slow and musical, now thundering and hurried,

will have some idea of the man we called 'Father

and you Pestalozzi.'

"Such as I have described him to you, we loved him; yes, we all loved him, for he loved us all; we loved him so much that when we lost sight of him for a time we felt sad and lonely, and when he came back to us again we could not turn our eyes away from him.

"We knew that at the time when the wars of the Swiss Revolution had so largely increased the number of poor and orphan children, he had taken a great number of them into his house and cared for them as a father, and we felt that he was the true friend of children, and of all who were in trouble or misfortune.

"My fellow-citizens of Yverdun, my native town, had generously placed at his disposal the old Castle. It was built in the shape of a huge square, and its great rooms and courts were admirably adapted for the games as well as the studies of a large school. Within its walls were assembled from a hundred and fifty to two hundred children of all nations, who divided their time between lessons and happy play. It often happened that a game of prisoner's base, begun in the Castle court, would be finished on the grass near the lake. In winter we used to make a mighty snow-fortress, which was attacked and defended with equal heroism. Sickness was hardly known among us.

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Early every morning we went in turns and had a shower of cold water thrown over us. We were generally bareheaded, but once, when a bitterly cold wind was blowing, my father took pity upon me, and gave me a hat. My companions had no sooner perceived it than a hue and cry was raised: A hat, a hat!' It was soon knocked off my head and a hundred hands sent it flying about the playground and corridors, till at last it went spinning through a window, and fell into the river that flows under the walls of the Castle. It was carried away to the lake and I never saw it again.

"Our masters were for the most part young men, and nearly all children of the revolutionary period, who had grown up round Pestalozzi, their father and ours. There were, indeed, a few educated men and scholars who had come to share his task; but, taken altogether, there was not much learning I myself have heard Pestalozzi boast, when

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