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Give the relation of conception to perception; to memory; to imagination; to judgment.

Letter. Write with great care a letter to your friend, giving a clear account of conception. As this is the most difficult of the mental powers to master, you may ask your friend to study it patiently and work it out.

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Thinking, but not picturing.

V. Characteristics of Conception.

Discerning concepts.

Naming concepts.

VI. Definitions of Conception.

Author's. Original. Various.

VII. Names of Products of Conception.

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Gives the differentia.

Refers to a higher class.

XI. Comparative Psychology.

XII. Growth and Education of Conception.

CHAPTER XV.

JUDGMENT.

By this is meant the power to discern the agreement or disagreement of ideas. You say the mountain is high; here you discern and declare the agreement between the notions high and mountain. Perceptiveknowledge and thought-knowledge differ in two respects: 1. We gain perceptive-knowledge intuitively but reach thought-knowledge by processes of elaboration. 2. Perceptive-knowledge is concrete, while thought-knowledge is abstract. Concepts are our first thought-products. We think things into classes by discerning relations of resemblance. As the reaper binds the wheat in bundles, so we think individual things into groups. Judgments are our next higher thoughtproducts. We discover that ideas are so related as to agree or disagree. Self, as judgment, discerns and asserts the agreement and disagreement of notions. We discern truth-relations, which we express in sentences. Analysis of Acts of Judgment. The horse is a

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I discern and assert the agreement of the notions vertebrate and horse, and also that of x and y. Discerning and asserting the agreement of notions is called

judging. Bees are not vertebrates; w is not x.

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the notions bee and vertebrate; also of w and x. Discerning and asserting the disagreement of notions is called judging. The capability to discern the agreement or disagreement of notions is termed judgment.

The oyster is a mollusk.

MOLLUSK

OYSTER

The Chinese are not Caucasians. CAUCASIAN

CHINESE

I discern agreement between the notions oyster and mollusk, and that the former is included in the latter. I express this agreement by saying the oyster is a mollusk. I discern disagreement between the notions Chinese and Caucasian, and that one is not included in the other, and I express this disagreement by saying that the Chinese are not Caucasians.

Office of Judgment.-Self, as judgment, elaborates percepts and concepts into truths; as, Pope was a poet; Burr was not a patriot. In discerning the agreement and disagreement of notions we discern truths.

1. The mind, as judgment, discerns the agreement or disagreement of notions. This is primary. We

find that ideas are so related as to agree or disagree. We discern agreement between the notions wise and Bacon.

2. The mind, as judgment, asserts the agreement or disagreement of notions. We not only discern the relation between the ideas, but we also assert agreement; as, Bacon was wise.

3. The mind, as judgment, elaborates notions into truths. The evolution of truth is pre-eminently the office of judgment. In discerning the agreement of two notions you discern a truth; as, the earth is round.

Characteristics of Judgment.—The following marks distinguish this capability:

1. Self, as judgment, discerns truth-relations. Notions agree, as, silver is a metal. The agreement is real, is true. Judgment is our capability to discern this agreement. Beings destitute of judgment are incapable of cognizing truth.

2. Self, as judgment, thinks notions into propositions. Judgment is our sentence-making power. We discern and predicate truth-relations. Each declarative sentence expresses an act of judgment.

3. Self, as judgment, accepts his predications as true. When the predication accords with reality, we accept the proposition as true; but when the predication does not accord with reality, we reject the proposition as false. Judgment is an essential element of belief. I believe, or accept as true, that Columbus discovered America; but I disbelieve, or reject as false, that Washington was King of England. Because I have the power to discern truth relation, I accept as true my predications.

Elements of Judgment.

Discernment of truth-relations,
Assent to truth discerned.

1. As judgment, self discerns truth-relations. Notions agree; this agreement is termed truth-relation, since the assertion of the agreement is either true or untrue. Space is infinite; Cæsar was perfect; as judgment, the soul discerns the truth of the first proposition, and the untruth of the second.

2. As judgment, self assents to truth discerned. The soul discerns truth and accepts it. Truth is harmony with reality. The soul is so constituted that it believes its predications of truth-relations. I discern the agreement of the notions man and biped, and I accept as true that man is a biped. I believe it.

Judgment defined.—Judgment, judging, and a judgment represent the faculty, the act, and the product. Judging is the act of predicating the agreement or disagreement of notions. A judgment is the expression of the agreement or disagreement of notions. A judgment is called a proposition or a sentence.

1. Judgment is the mental power to discern and predicate the agreement or disagreement of notions; as, I discern the agreement of the notions man and animal, and make the predication that man is an animal. I also discern the disagreement of the notions bird and mammal, and make the predication that birds are not mammals.

2. Original. You may write your definition of judgment and give illustrations. What is judging ? What is a judgment?

3. Various Definitions.-1. STORMOUTH: Judgment is the faculty to discern truth. 2. McCоSH: Judgment is the power to compare

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