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notions as to agreement or disagreement. 3. SULLY: Judgment is the capability to predicate one idea of another. 4. HAMILTON: Judgment is the power to recognize the relation of congruence or conflict between notions. 5. DEWEY: Judgment is the power to refer ideas to realities, and affirm truth-relations. 6. DUNTON: Judgment is the faculty of the mind by which we know the relation between two objects of knowledge.

Terms of a Judgment.-We discern the congruence or incongruence of notions, and predicate these truthrelations. A judgment embodied in language is called a proposition or a sentence, and consists of three parts: subject, predicate, and copula. The terms (from termini, extremes) are the subject and predicate.

1. The subject is the basis of the judgment. It is that of which we assert the agreement or disagreement. The subject is always a noun, or some word or expression used as such. It may be a percept, as, Arnold was a traitor; or a concept, as, some girls are studious.

2. The predicate is that which is affirmed or denied of the subject. The copula and predicate are often condensed into one term; as, God is. When expanded, we have the regular form, God is existing. The predicate is always a concept.

3. The copula expresses the act of judging. Because it unites the terms of the judgment, it is called the copula. It is present in every act of judgment, either expressed or included in the predicate.

Properties and Classification of Judgments.-In logic, judgments are classified with reference to quantity, quality, relation, modality, etc. For full treatment of this topic, the student is referred to works on logic. Psychology seeks merely to unfold the nature of the judging activity.

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1. Quantity refers to the extension of the subject. As to quantity, judgments are universal or particular. (1.) Universal judgments are those in which the predication is of the entire class; as, all men are fallible; all x is y; no man is perfect; no w is x. (2.) Particular judgments are those in which the predication is of a percept or of a part of a class; as, Mary is wise; some boys are studious; some y is x; some boys are not studious; some y is not x. Give five examples, and illustrate by figures.

2. Quality refers to the congruence or incongruence of notions. As to quality, judgments are affirmative or negative. (1.) Positive judgments predicate the congruence of notions; as, all elephants are quadrupeds; some men are wise. Give five universal affirmative judgments and five particular affirmatives. (2.) Negative judgments predicate the incongruence of notions; as, no bird is a mammal; some men are not wise. Give five universal negative and five particular negative judgments, illustrating by figures.

Judgment and other Faculties.—In gaining concepts we necessarily judge. Percepts and concepts are the materials out of which we make judgments. Re-percepts and re-concepts are simply remembered percepts and concepts. Re-judgments are remembered judgments. Imagination helps in arranging the materials. Self, as judgment, discerns the truth-relations between notions. Reason enables us to compare judgments and infer conclusions. It is clear that judgment enters in some form into all distinct knowing; and it is equally certain that judging involves all the other intellectual powers. The soul is a unit in knowing.

Comparative Psychology. The brute is incapable of abstraction, hence can not form concepts. As the predicate of a judgment is necessarily a concept, it is evident that the brute is not endowed with judgment in the sense of the capability to discern truth-relations. Many brute acts seem to indicate the exercise of judgment, but it is believed that all brute activity can be accounted for without supposing the brute to be endowed with this power.

Axioms are Necessary Judgments. - Generalizations from necessary ideas are necessary judgments. These judgments are self-evident truths. They may be verified, but can not be proved. All axioms are necessary judgments. The parts of this apple are equal to this whole. So of this orange and this cube. From my intuitive insight into the relations of the parts to the whole, I discern the general truth-the parts are equal to the whole. The soul perceives directly necessary ideas, and from these elaborates self-evident truths.

Growth of Judgment.*-Conception is exercised ear

* See "Education of Judgment," "Applied Psychology."

lier than judgment, but at a very early age children form crude judgments about food and surroundings. At first they use percepts as the subjects of their judgments. When about three years old, the child begins to use concepts as subjects. Now the child becomes more careful about his statements as the truth-idea begins to be realized. Judgment gradually develops, and in youth seems to reach full activity, though continuing to grow throughout active life.


Review. Give your definition and illustration of conception; of concept; of abstraction; of generalization; of definition. What is the material of which we make concepts? concepts? ideals?

What is meant by judgment? Give the distinction between perceptive-knowledge and thought-knowledge. What are our first thought-products? What relations of things enable us to think individuals into groups? into sentences?

Analyze several of your acts of judgment. What do you discern? What relations of notions enable us to think ideas into propositions? Give five examples.

Give the author's definition of judgment; your definition; McCosh's definition; Hamilton's definition. Define a judgment. What are the terms of a judgment? Define and illustrate. Give the properties of a judgment. Define and illustrate.

Out of what are judgments made? What do you call a remembered percept? concept? judgment? How does memory help in judgment? What aid does imagination give?

Does the brute judge? How do you account for the remarkable acts of dogs? foxes? horses? elephants?

What is a necessary judgment? Are axioms necessary judgments? What distinction do you make between a necessary idea and a necessary judgment?

Do we perceive necessary truths in the abstract? Illustrate. Letter.—You may now write a letter, giving your friend your views of judgment. Let all the illustrations be yours.

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VIII. Judgment, and other Faculties.

Perception, Conception, and Memory furnish materials.
Reason tests the judgment.

Judgment contributes the truth-element to all knowing.

IX. Comparative Psychology-Brutes not endowed with Judgment.

X. Necessary Judgments.

XI. Growth and Education of Judgment.

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