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We mean by noumena the enduring realities which underlie and make possible phenomena. Noumena condition phenomena. We class as noumena substances and necessary relations. Appearances are phenomena; the realities of which we affirm phenomena, or which make phenomena possible, are noumena.

1. Substances. The enduring entities which underlie phenomena are called substances. As there are two kinds of phenomena, so there are two substances.

(1.) Matter. Glass is brittle, hard, transparent. These properties of glass are termed physical phenomena. The material substance of which we affirm brittle, hard, transparent, is called matter. In the matterworld we find extension, weight, impenetrability. Matter is the enduring noumenon of which we assert extension, weight, impenetrability. The noumenon, or reality of which we assert physical phenomena, is called matter.

(2.) Mind. You remember the multiplication-table. You write essays. You hate lying. You hate lying. You choose truth. Whatever it is that does these things is called a mind, a spirit, a soul. The enduring self, the Ego, the noumenon that thinks, is called a mind. I am, therefore I think. The self of which we assert mental phenomena is called a mind.

2. Necessary Relations.—That substances and phenomena may be, time and space and causation must be. As these and such like relations are necessary and enduring realities, they are classed as noumena.

III. Energies.

Physical Energies, or Forces.

Divine Energies.

We try to understand the dynamics of the universe. We learn to call the energies which produce changes, causes. "Force, energy, and cause are not identical or equivalent, though they are synonymous. Force is used to signify an energy that requires another energy outside of it to incite it to action, and still another to guide it. But the energies of the soul are self-incited and self-directed. Self-related force is not thought of when we speak of force, and hence force is a bad term to express soul-energies."

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It is extremely difficult to arrange the soul-energies from the standpoint of cause. Self acts spontaneously. Strictly, no mental act is caused. Sensor excitations occasion sensations, sensations occasion perception, ideas occasion emotions, emotions occasion choice, choice occasions action; but the series is of conditions and not causes. Each rational mental act is self

caused. Then the marvelous interaction of knowing, feeling, and willing makes the task doubly difficult. Feelings not illuminated by intellect are blind and brutal. Intellect not moved by feeling and directed by will is effortless and aimless. Choice not guided by intellect is irrational. At best the arrangement of our mental powers must be in the order of dependence; and of this each one judges for himself and varies the arrangement accordingly.

1. Physical Forces.-Bound up in matter are the stupendous energies which cause perpetual change. We dwell amid whispering breezes, rippling brooks, heaving oceans, and revolving worlds. The energies which cause physical changes are called physical forces.

2. Soul-Energies.-Minds are endowed with the marvelous energies which change infant Newtons into philosophers, and savage tribes into enlightened nations. A mind is self-acting and is a self-cause. Soul-energies are self-incited and self-directed. The energies which cause mental changes are called soul-energies.

3. Divine Energies.-Herbert Spencer, in his final summary, says: "Amid all mysteries, there remains one absolute certainty: we are ever in the presence of the Infinite and Eternal Energy, from whom all things proceed."

Unity of the Universe.--The pyramid of energies may help us to grasp the unity of the universe. Each lower energy is involved in the higher. The plant-unit involves cosmic and co-ordinating forces. The brute-unit involves vegetable life as well as the lower forces. The human unit involves the animal life-forces as well as all the lower forces. The matter-world is a unit. All the physical forces work in harmony and give us the reign of law. So, too, the mind-world is a unit. All the mental energies work in harmony and give us men and women, society, government.

In our times it is not difficult to complete the pyramid by adding Divine Energies. We thus reach absolute unity. All substances, all forces, all laws are but expressions of the Infinite Will. The Divine includes all and unites all. The universe is a unit. Physical Laws.

IV. Laws.- Mental Laws.

Moral Laws.

The whole distance through which a body falls in a given time is equal to the space passed through during the first second multiplied by the square of the time. This is a uniform way in which the force of gravity acts, and is called a law of falling bodies. That welldirected effort promotes growth, is called a law of human development. A uniform way in which an energy acts is called a law.

1. Physical Laws.—We speak of the reign of law in the matter-world. We mean that the physical forces act in certain fixed ways. We observe the fall of the apple. We find that all material bodies attract each other in proportion to the mass and inversely as the square of the distance. We have discovered a law of gravity, or a uniform way in which the force of gravity acts. Law reigns in the matter-world. The modes or ways in which physical forces uniformly act are called physical laws.

2. Mental Laws. We notice that some incident enables us to recall long-forgotten events. We find that present ideas tend to suggest past ideas. We have discovered a law, or a uniform way in which the memory acts. Law reigns in the mind-world. The uniform ways in which the mind acts are termed mental laws.

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Science is more than classified knowledge. Take botany: the central idea is plant-life; the field of research is plant-phenomena. We group around the central idea the laws of plant-phenomena. Under these laws we arrange principles, facts, illustrations, applications. We thus build up the science of botany. The systematic arrangement of the laws of phenomena is called science.

1. Physical Sciences.-The sciences that treat of physical phenomena are called the physical sciences. Take zoology: the central idea is animal life; the phenomena of animal life is the field of inquiry. Around the central idea we group the laws of animal phenomena. Under these laws we arrange principles, facts, illustrations, applications. We have created the science of zoology. The systematic arrangement of the laws of physical phenomena in a special field of research is called a physical science.

2. Mental Sciences.-The sciences that treat of mental phenomena are called mental sciences. A mental science is the systematic arrangement of the laws of mental phenomena in a special field of inquiry. Take psychology. Here mental phenomena is the field. The central idea is mind. We discover the mental powers and their modes of action. We arrange around the central idea the laws of mental phenomena. Under the laws we group principles, facts, illustrations, applications. We thus form the science of psychology. The systematic classification of the laws of mental phenom

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