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XIII. Liberty-Choice is causa sui.

1. Consciousness attests liberty. 2. Literature attests liberty.
3. Law is based on liberty.
5. Choice, uncaused cause.

XIV. Growth of Choice.

Reflex action and volition.
Determined action.

XV. Education of Choice.

4. Liberty a necessary idea.

6. There is a God.

Impulsive action.





Will is Self-Willing.-Our will-powers are our capabilities of self-direction, self-determination, and selfaction. Because will is mind in liberty, these are called the voluntary powers; because determination leads on to action, these are called the active powers.

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Intellect, Emotion, Will.-Step by step we have ascended the psychological pyramid. At its summit we find the will-powers. Choice is the cap-stone. Our voluntary powers, we discover, are simple, as compared with our cognitive powers or our emotions. Of our mental energies, we find our emotions by far the most numerous, complex, and varied. Our intellectual facul

ties are relatively few, yet exceedingly subtile in their interdependence and action. Our voluntary powers are yet more simple, and offer their chief difficulty in the problem of liberty.

As possessed of intellect alone, we have represented man by one line; as possessed of intellect and sensibility, we have represented him by two lines; and we now represent him as possessed of intellect, sensibility, and will by three lines, united thus:

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Without intellect, there are no ideas, and therefore no emotions; without emotion, there is no motive; without motive, there is no choice; without choice, there is no rational action.*

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Attention is the self-directing power of the mind; volition is the self-acting power of the mind; choice is the self-determining power of the mind. As attention, self concentrates his efforts; as choice, self decides; as action, self executes his decisions.

Will is Self." We have now finished our study of the various factors of the self. It is now necessary very briefly to notice their relation to each other. The unity of the self is the will. The will

* Dr. Mark Hopkins.

is the man, psychologically speaking. Knowledge we have seen to be in its essence a process of the realization of the universal self-consciousness; feeling to be the accompaniment of self-realization; and its specific quality to be dependent upon the definite form of selfrealization accomplished. Will we have just seen to be the self realizing itself. This is involved throughout in physical and prudential control, and it is explicitly developed when we study moral control. Here the will is seen to be self-determination. The will, in short, constitutes the meaning of knowledge and of feeling; and moral will constitutes the meaning of will.

"Moral will is the conscious realization by man that the real and the ideal ought to be one, and the resulting attempt to make them one in specific acts and in the formation of character. Religious will is conscious realization that they are one because man is a selfdetermining power. It is the realization that a perfect will is reality. It is the realization of freedom through the realization of the union of finite and the infinite Personality. It is only when we recognize this latter activity of will that we are able really to comprehend the previous forms of activity."*

Will, the Court of Final Appeal.—Ideas fight. Emotions wage war. Appetites and passions clamor for gratification; egoistic emotions contend for self; love pleads for others; conscience imperatively battles for right. Fiercer conflicts rage in the human soul than on fields of carnage. But self, as choice, is sovereign. Reason examines all the arguments and weighs all the motives. In view of all the considerations, self, as choice, decides. Happy he who chooses wisely!

* John Dewey, in "Psychology."


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Author of law, 248.
Author's preface, xvii.
Avoidability, 275.
Axioms, 156.

Bad intentions, 246.
Beauty-emotions, 234.
Beauty, objective, 236.
Belief and reason, 191.
Benevolent emotions, 222.
Body and soul, 52.
Brain, 39.

Capabilities, 56, 57, 262.
Cause, 28, 95, 181.
Cerebration, 44.
Cerebrum, 42, 43.
Certainty, 189, 190.
Character, 237.

Characteristics of action, 267.
of æsthetic emotions, 234.
of altruistic emotions, 223.
of an appetite, 209.
of attention, 6.

of choice, 275.
of conception, 158.
of conscience, 243.

of egoistic emotions, 217.

of imagination, 136.

of instinct, 16.

of judgment, 173.

of memory, 110.

of noumenal-perception, 88,

of phantasy, 126.

of reason, 183.

of sense-perception, 61.
of truth-emotions, 232.
Choice, chapter xxvii, 273.
Choice and law, 279.

Classes of æsthetic emotions, 234.

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