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and their eyes, in observing the objects around them, and the events that occur, and storing them up for future reflection. Plants and animals and stars, men and women and children, fall under our eyes at all times, and their nature, shapes, and actings should be diligently scanned for practical use and for scientific attainment.” *

Physiological Psychology. Carpenter's "Mental Physiology," Wundt's "Physiological Psychology," and Ribot's "Empirical Psychology" are remarkable works. The latter gives an account of German investigation in this field. These researches have, for the psychologist, an intense interest. They throw light upon the conscious acts of the mind. They demonstrate the infinite importance of hygienic living. Even their failures are invaluable. The true psychology gathers up the facts of mind established by all schools of investigators.

The investigations of physiologists have thrown much light on the manner in which material objects affect the different sense-organs, and also on the excitation and action of the sensorium, and especially of the brain; but they necessarily stop with sensorial phenomena. It is impossible to cross the line that divides the physical and the psychical, and explain physiologically the action of the soul.†

Body and Mind.‡—“ A human being consists of two clearly distinguishable parts-body and mind, or soul. The body has its distinctive capacities and powers, and so has the soul. To the body belong weight and extension; to the soul, the powers of knowing, feeling, and willing. To the question, What is the soul in its essence? we may return the question, What is the body in its essence? The one question is as easy of solution as the other. The human mind is forced to assume a substance to which belong the known properties, or powers, of matter. In like manner it is compelled to assume a substance, or being, in which exist the powers of the soul. If, then, the question be returned, What is the soul? we answer, It is the part of man that has the powers of knowing, feeling, and willing."

* McCosh.

† White.

Larkin Dunton.


Review.-Give distinctions between phenomena and noumena; force and law; instinct and intellect. Define science, education, psychology, mind. Etc., etc.

Draw and describe a nerve-cell; a ganglion; a nerve. Give the office of nerves; of sensor nerves; of motor nerves; of afferent nerves; of efferent nerves. Show that nerve-fibers are continuous; compare to telegraph-wires. Explain the meaning of nerve-currents.

Give the meaning of sense-organs; of terminal organs. Show the office of sense-organs. Give the distinction between the special and the general senses.

Give the estimated number of nerve-cells and nerve-fibers in a human brain. Name the lower nerve-centers of the brain; the central nerve-centers; the higher nerve-centers.

Define sensorium; what does it include? Define motorium; what does it include? Give the office of sensor.ganglia; of intellective ganglia; of emotive ganglia; of motor ganglia.

Place on the board a diagram of the sensorium and motorium, and also the cuts on pages 46 and 48. Trace impressions from the outer to the inner world through each of the special sensor lines.

Describe, give office of, and illustrate the workings of the optic apparatus; of the auditory apparatus; of the olfactory apparatus ; of the gustatory apparatus; of the tactile apparatus; of the muscular apparatus. Give examples.

Define sensation. Do agitations of the sensorium of which you are not conscious produce sensation? What is it that hears and sees? What is reflex action? automatic action?

Why should we spare no effort to keep our bodies in the best possible condition? Why is it criminal to violate hygienic laws? What is meant by comparative psychology? How do brute and human sensations differ?

Letter. Tell your friend some things you know about the sensorium and sensation. Dwell upon the wonders of the organism in connection with which mind works. Explain in detail and fully how messages pass between the outer and the inner world. Inclose your outline of these chapters.

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XII. Comparative Psychology.

XIII. Hygiene and Education of the Senses.




VIII.—NOUMENAL PERCEPTION, or Noumenal Intuition.

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