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pine in the forest. Flitting hopes and fears and desires appear like shadows, and fade into unconsciousness.

1. Clear self-consciousness. Everything appears in the light. The soul perceives itself thinking, grieving, determining. The mind intuitively knows itself acting. This is self-consciousness. In this sense it is used in psychology and literature as well as in common life. This is consciousness as you define it, human-consciousness, self-consciousness.

2. Sub-consciousness is obscure consciousness. It is by some termed semi-consciousness. However designated, indistinct consciousness is implied. The orator is conscious only of the thought he is uttering, but back in the misty chamber of sub-consciousness are many thoughts struggling into consciousness. Webster tells us that, when he was preparing his reply to Hayne, burning thoughts like clusters of stars crowded for utterance. This shadowy region may be called the antechamber of consciousness. But, even in this mystic chamber, the soul seems to dimly perceive itself working.

3. Unconsciousness is utter blankness. Imagine self absolutely dormant—no knowing, no feeling, no will. ing; this is unconsciousness. Non-consciousness means that phenomena do not appear to the conscious soul. I am non-conscious of your thoughts or feelings or purposes, or of my own mental operations that are supposed to occur in the hidden laboratory of thought.

Unconscious Cerebration.-" Nothing could be more grossly unscientific than the famous remark of Cabanis, that the brain secretes thought as the liver secretes bile. It is not even correct to say that thought goes on in the brain. What goes on in the brain is an amazingly complex series of molecular movements, with which thought and feeling are in some unknown way correlated, not as

effects or as causes, but as concomitants. By no possibility can thought and feeling be in any sense the products of matter. Unconscious cerebration is a fiction of a false theory." ""* Self may do work of which he is dimly conscious, but that a material brain reaches conclusions and makes rational choices is simply inconceivable. That the mind is self-acting in all its powers is a stupendous fact. That it is ever consciously active in some degree, I do not doubt; but is the soul distinctly conscious of all its workings? No one thinks so. Does the mind carry on lines of work of which it is itself unconscious? Let Dr. McCosh answer:

Unconscious Mental Action." It was an opinion entertained by Leibnitz, and held by many since his time, that we are unconscious of many of our mental operations. They point to acts of mind which have left effects behind them, but of which we have not the dimmest recollection. We are sure that we must have issued a great many volitions in passing from one place to another, but after they are over we can not recollect one of them. The question arises, How are we to account for such a phenomenon? I believe it can all be explained by the ordinary laws of mind, without our calling in such an anomalous principle as unconscious mental action. I hold that we were conscious of the acts at the time, but that they were not retained, as there was nothing to fix them in the memory."

Here is sunlight clearness. Here is the granite. Some profound thinkers, however, take a widely different view. Wundt is easily the master-mind among physiological psychologists. His views in brief will interest even beginners. No one needs to wander off and lose himself in the imaginary mystic chambers of the unconscious. You can afford to leave to daring speculators the exploration of the mysterious realms of the unconscious, the hidden springs of mental life, and the unknown laboratories of the soul. In the following paragraph, Wundt's ap-perception is McCosh's self-consciousness and our conscious-perception :

* John Fiske.

The Unconscious conditions the Conscious.-" Physiological psychology starts with physiological facts and seeks to discover the psychological facts which are connected with them. It begins without and seeks to penetrate within by varying the external conditions of internal phenomena. A mind is a thing that reasons. A faculty is a distinct mode of psychical activity. Consciousness is the faculty of internal vision, and the point of clear consciousness may be called ap-perception. Ap-perception, or the consciousness of perceiving external objects, takes place in the frontal regions of the brain. Ap-perception is the internal activity that unitizes our experiences. But the agent that is conscious knows only results worked out in the unknown laboratory of the unconscious. In the hidden foundations and springs of mental life take place the important mental operations which fit things to appear in the field of consciousness. The conscious is always conditioned upon the unconscious."

Self-Consciousness and Physiological Psychology." Phenomena," says Lotze, "imply things which appear and a self-conscious being to whom they appear. The unitizing function of consciousness is an incontrovertible fact, absolutely inexplicable on any physiological hypotheses." "The scope of physiological psychology is necessarily limited to bodily functions and the physical concomitants of mental actions." "A psychology without a soul,” at its best, has "the brain secreting thought just as the liver secretes bile." From this standpoint, the existence of a self-conscious soul is a metaphysical assumption, and self-activity is inconceivable. Man is merely a mechanism, and mind a mode of motion.

The Inner-Sense.-" We have the power," says President Hopkins, "of knowing immediately the processes and products of our own minds. Through this we not only know ourselves but also our fellow-men. That this knowledge is immediate all agree. Innersense is the best name for this power, as it corresponds with outersense. But, call this power what you may, we have revealed through it an inner world more wonderful even than that which is without— a world of intelligence, of comprehension, of feeling, of will, of personality, and of moral instead of physical law. It is a world whose phenomena we can study and arrange as we do those of the external world; but, as in the external world, the phenomena themselves must be immediately given. We must in some way intuitively and necessarily know them to be."

SUGGESTIVE STUDY-HINTS.

Review.—Write out a topical analysis of sense-perception. Discuss by topics. How do messages pass between the outer and the inner world? Define mind, faculty, sense-perception. Etc.

What is meant by consciousness? Tell what comes to us from the wonder-world around us? What do you mean by the inner world?

What power enables us to look directly into the inner world? Explain the meaning of each name given to this faculty. Which name do you prefer? Why?

Analyze two of your acts of consciousness. Give the three great facts you discover. Look once more. Are you conscious of abstract sadness, or of self feeling sad? What do you mean by self-consciousness? What will you call the ideas you gain through consciousness?

Give the office of consciousness.

What does self perceive? What does self do with his experiences? Illustrate by the connective tissue.

each.

Name the four characteristics of consciousness. Explain

Give the author's definition of consciousness; your definition; McCosh's definition; Wundt's definition.

Define conscious-percepts. Give the marks of a conscious-percept. Give the distinction between a conscious-percept and a sensepercept. Illustrate.

State as clearly as you can the distinctions between attention, consciousness, and memory.

Trace the growth of consciousness. Mention some of the difficulties in studying mental phenomena.

What do you mean by clear consciousness? by sub-consciousness? by unconsciousness? What does Fiske say about unconscious cerebration? What does McCosh say about unconscious mental action? What does Wundt say about the unconscious? What do you say?

Letter. You may make a neat analysis of Chapter VII, and include it in your letter to your friend. It will pay you to "hasten leisurely" here. Put in your letter what you perceive about yourself. Mastery here means victory all along the line.

TOPICAL ANALYSIS OF CHAPTER VII.-SELF

1. Two Worlds.

CONSCIOUSNESS.

Matter-world-Sense-perception.
Mind-world-Conscious-perception.

II. Names.

Conscious-perception, or conscious-intuition, etc.

III. Analysis of Acts of Consciousness.

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Brutes are not self-conscious. Man is self-conscious.

XII. Degrees of Consciousness.

Clear self-consciousness.

Obscure consciousness.

XIII. Unconscious Cerebration.

Unconsciousness.

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