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"The mind,"

The child says, "Cause." The

just as I am conscious of sense-intuition. "I am, therefore I think," is the true psychology. says Wundt, "is the entity that reasons." 9. Cause. Why does the ball fall? "Cause." Why does the clock tick? child notices changes, and asks you, "What makes the changes?" You answer, "Cause." That effects may be, cause must be. Causation is a necessary idea. We perceive concrete cause, and think the general: "Every effect must have a cause." The idea, this cause, is intuitive. As mind originates activity-possesses spontaneity we may say that a mind is a self-cause. The absolute self-cause is God.

10. Number. Is number a necessary idea? Try it. In case you remove number from the truth-tree, endeavor to replace it by a genuine necessary idea. How will liberty do? How do you like spontaneity?

11. Resemblance. The likeness in the two things observed is not in the one or in the other. Every case of comparison is but an application of the idea-resemblance. As experience can not give the idea, and as it can not be a product of induction, we class resemblance as one of our necessary ideas.

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12. Infinity. Take 3333333+; however far I carry the process, I know I do not and can not reach a limit. I perceive this infinity. Take two parallel lines. I extend them two feet. They are still the same distance apart. I have the direct insight that they would never meet, however far extended. Intuitively I know this infinity. I imagine a limit to space. What lies beyond? Space. Space is its own environment. Space is self-related. Space is limitless. Space is infinite.

Show that you intuitively know infinite time and infinite cause.

Noumenal - Perception defined.-Self, as noumenalperception, perceives necessary ideas. This is about all that can be said. The fact is so simple that we can find nothing simpler into which to resolve it.

1. Noumenal-perception is the mental power to gain intuitively concrete necessary ideas. It is understood that noumenal-perception is an ultimate endowment of the soul, and that we perceive necessary ideas only in the singular and in the concrete.

2. Original. You have done your best to understand this faculty. Now embody your conclusion in a good definition.

Various Definitions.*-1. BASCOM: The capability to know directly intuitive ideas. 2. SCHUYLER: The power of apprehending necessary ideas. 3. LAWS: Noumenal-intuition is the power to know immediately and instantly noumenal ideas. 4. HOPKINS : The power to know immediately first ideas. 5. PORTER: The power to acquire first ideas intuitively. 6. HAMILTON: The power the mind has of being the native source of a priori cognitions. 7. WHITE: Intuition is the power to know directly and immediately necessary relations; as, space, time, being, substance, cause, design, etc.

Agnosticism.-To know is to be certain of something. No mysticism must be admitted into the operations of

*Explanatory.-In these definitions the expression necessary truth is used in the sense of necessary idea. To avoid confusion we have substituted "ideas" for "truths" in the following definitions. A necessary truth is a generalization from necessary ideas. We perceive necessary ideas, and elaborate them into necessary truths. The notion that these equals added to these give equal sums, is a necessary idea; but the generalization that equals added to equals give equal sums, is a necessary truth. We gain necessary ideas intuitively, but infer necessary truths. Axioms are necessary truths, not necessary ideas. The distinction is deemed important.

the intellect. We begin with certainty, and not doubt. We know ourselves thinking and perceiving material objects. Not only do all men admit necessary ideas, but they must. Agnosticism is intellectual suicide. Only "cranks" deny their own existence. "We know matter as existing, but we also know, and this directly, that it has relations to other things known, that it is in space, and that there is causation in its action. We also know mind as existing, and we know it to have being, potency, spirituality, and relations to things." Endowed with intuition, we build on the rock. "Philosophy," says Carlyle, "can bake no bread; but she can procure for us God, freedom, and immortality." Psychology can build no railroads, but she can give us certainty. A knowledge of our own capabilities renders agnosticism impossible.

Growth of Noumenal-Perception.-Each act of senseperception involves noumenal-perception. I perceive, not abstract properties, but things having properties. I perceive, not abstract mental acts, but self knowing, feeling, acting. Thus it is evident that the child gains necessary ideas as involved in the perception of phenomena. They are seen dimly at first. While all men accept and act upon necessary ideas, few distinctly state them to themselves. No one denies his own existence, or that he is in space, or that he grows old, but few grasp distinctly and fully these ideas. This power, though early active, is probably the latest of all the faculties in reaching full activity and development. These necessary or ultimate ideas seem to develop in the following order: Our first noumenal-percepts are concrete notions of objective realities. We know things having

properties. The ideas, time and space, appear in connection with our ideas of things. Next we observe change, and directly gain the cause-idea. Next we gain the idea―law—through our knowledge of the uniform ways in which energies act. Finally, we gain the ideathis unity-from our knowledge of the co-ordination of things. Thus, step by step, we advance to the conception of the universe as the perfect unity. Tennyson, holding the tiny flowering plant, well expresses this idea : "I pluck you out of the crannies;

Hold you here, root and all, in my hand,
Little flower-but if I could understand
What you are, root and all, all in all,
I should know what God and man is."

SUGGESTIVE STUDY-HINTS.

Review. Place on the board your diagram of conscious-perception, and also the diagram of sense-perception. Compare by topics with your analyses of noumenal-perception.

What is meant by noumenal-perception? by noumena?

Mention the names applied to noumenal-perception. Which name do you prefer? Why? Give the distinction between noumena and phenomena. Illustrate. Give the etymology of noumenon and the meaning of noumena. Why do we use this hard word?

What do you mean by necessary ideas? Name several necessary ideas. Prove that time is a necessary idea.

Analyze two of your acts of noumenal-perception. What do you discover?

Name the three conditions of cognizing necessary ideas. State the first test of a necessary idea. Illustrate. Give the second test and illustrate. Give the third; the fourth.

What is a noumenal-percept? Are percepts general or particular notions? Illustrate. Give some of the names applied to noumenal percepts. Explain. Criticise the expression "innate ideas." Are powers innate? Are all ideas acquired?

Place the tree of necessary ideas on the board. Test the fruit. State the author's definition of noumenal-perception; your definition; definition of Dr. Laws; Hamilton's definition; White's definition.

Show that agnosticism disappears in the light of the true psychology. What is agnosticism? Why do some persons claim to be agnostics? Is absolute agnosticism possible?

Letter. You will need to explain and illustrate very clearly. Though not more difficult to understand than sense-perception, your friend may not be familiar with noumenal-perception, and will need very full explanations.

TOPICAL ANALYSIS OF CHAPTER VIII.-NOUMENALPERCEPTION.

I. Position.

3. Noumenal-perception.

2. Conscious-perception.

1. Sense-perception.

II. Names.

Noumenal-perception.

Noumenal-intuition.

Rational-perception, or reason.

III. Conditions of Cognizing Noumena.

Objective reality.

Phenomena.

IV. Tests of Necessary Ideas.

Self-evidence.

Truth-perception.

Intuition, common-sense,

etc.

Noumenal-perception.

Universality.
Independence.

{

Singular notions.

Necessity.

V. Noumenal-percepts.

Definition.

Marks.......

NAMES.

Concrete notions.

Notions of necessary realities.

Noumenal-percepts and necessary ideas.
Noumenal-intuitions and ultimate ideas.
Necessary truths and first truths.

A priori ideas and intuitions.
Innate ideas and connate ideas.
Categorical ideas, etc.

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